It was very common in those days to change your
patronym -sson or -sdotter name to something more modern, like Lindgren.
That makes it even more difficult to find him.
His father may have been Johan Nilsson or Nils
Johansson or maybe Nils Johan Something.
If he did not emigrate officially in 1880 but
just left, he would have been kept on the books
and should be in the 1880 census. You can find
the 1880, 1890 and 1900 censuses on SVAR: www.svar.ra.se
Sillgatan (later Postgatan) was the major
emigrant street in Göteborg. It was full of cheap
hostels, diners, emigrant agents and other
establishments. It may be possible to find out
who lived in number 22. Try this site: http://aforum.genealogi.se/discus/
You have to register for a free account. Then go
to Ämnen (Topics) - Landskap - Göteborg - Var
ligger platsen (Where is the place).
Hope this helps. Or at least gives you some hope!