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As promised earlier last week, I herewith submit the various sources
consulted at the writing of the Kratz story:
For the military service in Hessian troops:
HETRINA VI (Hessische Truppen im amerikanischen Unabhaengigkeitskrieg)
Archivschule Marburg, Hessen, Germany by Auerbach and Froehlich, 1987.
A Family Record of the history of the Scratch, Wigle, Fox, Friend,
Wilkinson, Shepley, McCormick, Malotte, Coatsworth, Iler families and
other early settlers of the County of Essex. By Mary J. Burch,
Windsor, Ontario, printed 1880.
Commemorative Biographical Record of the County of Essex, Ontario.
Published by J.H. Beers & Co., Toronto, 1905.
The Deep Roots, a history of Grosse Ile, Michigan,
by Isabella E. Swan, Grosse Ile, Michigan, 1976.
The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, Vol.54, No.189,
October 1956 - Destruction of Ruddle's and Martin's forts in the
Revolutionary War. By Maude Ward Lafferty, pages 302-303.
History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky.
By Robert Peter, M.D., edited by William H. Perrin, 1882.
Art Guild Reprints, Inc., Cincinatti, Ohio.
And last not least:
When Detroit invaded Kentucky, by Milo. M. Quaife,
The History Quarterly, Vol.1 No.2, January 1927.
This is it, I herewith declare that I cannot do lookups in any of
the sources mentioned, because I researched those items at various
locations, one in particular, the Library at Paris, Kentucky, and
I have to say the staff on duty at the time did an excellent job in
giving assistance in my research.
Regards, John Helmut Merz.
Hello Ruddlesfort listers, the Essex County Genweb site has a
rootsweb type Query page and a page for Biographies. Many of the
prisoners of Capt. Bird were brought to Detroit and later settled
across the river on the Canadian side., which is now Essex County.
Perhaps you can find some of your people there, and in order to
access the Essex site, here is the URL
Hope that helps, John Merz, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Leonhard and Mary were separated from each other. Mary was taken
with the other women. They travelled by water in canoes, going
north by day, and resting on the river's shore by night. Several
nights later, while preparing to camp, Mary accidently fell and
struck her baby's head against a tree, it died instantly. Mary
hollowed out a grave with her bare hands and buried her first
The captive men were herded north to Detroit on a strenuous overland
march, burdened with whatever possessions the Indians saw fit to
appropriate as spoils of war. Leonhard told the story himself many
times in later life, that he was loaded down with a huge copper
kettle, extending over his head and secured to his back. The weight
of the kettle scraped into his flesh, causing infected wounds, which
left him with scars for the remainder of his life. Starvation almost
ended his sufferings. An Indian squaw named Mona du Quatte is said
to have secretly provided him with food. Years afterwards he was
able to repay her kindness by providing care in her old age, whenever
she visited his homestead on Lake Erie.
On 4.August 1780, Major Arent S. DePeyster, British commander at
Detroit, wrote to Lt.Col. Mason Bolton:
"Captain Bird arrived here this morning with about one hundred
and fifty prisoners, mostly Germans who speak English. The remainder
coming -- for in spite of all his endeavors to prevent it, the
Indians broke into their forts and seized many -- the whole will
amount to about three hundred and fifty. Their chief desire is to
remain and settle at this place as you will see by the enclosed
The enclosure, written by Captain Henry Bird on 24.July 1780, says
in part: "..... many of the prisoners would not take the oath to
the (American) Congress. I do not believe we have more than two
families who are really rebels. The rest are desirous of being
settled in Detroit with some land. They fled, they say, from
persecution and declare if the Government will assist them to get
them on foot as farmers, they will, as Militia, faithfully defend
the country that affords them protection. ...."
After arrival of the male prisoners, the Indians turned them over
to the Detroit landowners Alexander and William Macomb, sons of
John Macomb from Albany, N.Y. John Macomb had purchased land from
the Potawatomi Indians on 6.July 1776, which included several islands
in the Detroit river, among which were Hog Island, later renamed
Belle Island, and Grosse Ile. The same year Lt.Governor Henry
Hamilton granted William Macomb permission to occupy Grosse Ile.
In 1780 the original deed was acknowledged as a "volunteer act of
the chiefs of the Potawatomi Nation" before Arent.S. DePeyster,
the newly appointed commander at Detroit.
The Macombs, who maintained friendly relations with the Indians by
trading with them, are claimed to have "bought" the prisoners. There
is no evidence at all that such a deal has taken place. The Indians
may have received some presents in appreciation of bringing the
prisoners safely to Detroit.
Once released at Detroit, Leonhard Kratz kept watching for the
arrival of the women down at the boat docks along the river.
Finally, Mary arrived. He did not recognize her until she called
out his name. He took her into his arms and carried her to camp
quarters, where she could be cared for. The joy of their reunion
was saddened by the story of the loss of the baby.
With no eartly possessions but their mutual love and devotion,
Leonhard and Mary accepted the Macomb's offer to farm for them
on Hog Island. In 1781 a son Peter was born, named in honour of
Leonhard's father. The Munger and Tofflemeyer families settled
Captain Isaac Ruddell and his wife remained prisoners of the
British until after the war. They returned to Bourbon County,
Kentucky, in 1784. In 1788 Ruddell built a gristmill near his new
home on a branch of the Licking river. He died about 1808 and is
buried in the old Presbyterian graveyard, located outside
There is a plaque standing just at the crossroads a little north
of the cemetery, erected by the Commonwealth of Kentucky:
Near his home Isaac Ruddell built a gristmill in 1788
on the north side of Hinkson bridge, and a sawmill in
1795 to be operated by his son Abram. A 720 spindle
cotton mill erected 500 feet west by Thomas and Hugh Brent
in 1828, burned 1836. Soon rebuilt by Abram Spears,
it also spun wool until about 1855. Ruddell gave land
for Stoner Mouth Church and cemetery.
With this I'll close this particular chapter of the story of a
Hessian soldier, who has endured hardships beyond imagination.
I have followed his trail from his place of birth to his final
resting place on the shores of Lake Erie, but I did it by modern
means on modern roads, while he walked every step of the way with
heavy loads. Having been an infantry man myself during WWII, I do
have a bit of experience to know what a man like him went through.
I thank you for reading this story, and I do hope you enjoyed
reading it, yours truly Johannes (John) Helmut Merz.
Thank you so much for that moving story. What a wonderful addition to
our collection of stories involving those brave souls of June, 1780!
I have added your story to our captives list and I, for one, would love
to order your book on Leonhard Kratz.
Let me at this point introduce Captain Isaac Ruddle of the Virginia
Militia from the Shenandoah valley. Already back in 1777 he and his
brother George had gone to Kentucky to check out the land and to
stake his land claim. Each of them staked out 1400 acres of virgin
land in the area which was later known as Bourbon County.
Captain Ruddle went back to Virginia and received a commission to
raise a company of volunteers, and in 1779 began to assemble a wagon
train for the move to Kentucky. The Munger's, their son-in-law Martin
Toffelmeyer with his wife and family, and Leonhard Kratz joined up with
the wagon train, and Captain Ruddle led them to Kentucky. With the
love affair developing between Mary and Leonhard, the Captain most
likely was the man with authority to perform the wedding ceremony
at the side of the wagons in the open air. An actual wedding
certificate was in all probability never made out, and if, it was
Captain Ruddle's wagon train reached the Licking river in Kentucky,
and the whole group settled in or near a fort which had been
abandoned three years earlier by the pioneer Hinkson because of
Indian trouble. Here in this fort Ruddle established what is known
in later history as the Ruddle's Fort.
He enlarged and fortified it, making it one of the strongest forts
in the Kentucky wilderness, capable of accomodating from two to
three hundred people. His garrison was composed of forty-nine men,
and on his list were Charles Munger Sr., William Munger Jr., Martin
Tuffleman (Toffelmeyer), and Leonard Croft (Kratz).
It is not quite clear whether this list contained just the names of
settlers at the fort, or whether it was a list of men of Ruddle's
Virginia militia company, in which case they would have had to take
an oath of allegiance and to swear to uphold the Constitution of the
United States of America. If this was indeed the case, it would
explain the rather harsh treatment these men received later at the
hands of the British and the Indians. It would also mean that the
Hessian soldier Leonhard Kratz broke his oath to his Prince and to
King George III.
The spring following the hard winter of 1779 was unusually fine, and
the inhabitants of Ruddle's Fort saw their cattle grow fat on the
luscious bluegrass, and the rich soil gave promise of bounteous crops.
Everywhere there was an atmosphere of peace and prosperity and general
well-being. There was no premonition of the tragedy that awaited them.
That's how later a Kentucky historian had described the scene.
(The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, Vol.54, No.189,
October 1956 - "Destruction of Ruddle's and Martin's forts in the
Revolutionary War. Pages 302-304, by Maude Ward Lafferty.)
Captured by Indians
The war with Great Britain was still going on. From the British
strong point of Detroit at the far west end of Lake Erie, a force of
200 English soldiers and Canadian volunteers under the command of
Captain Henry Bird of His Majesty's 8th Regiment of Foot, plus some
600 Indians led by Simon Girty, swooped down upon the unsuspecting
new settlements of Kentucky. The intent of the mission was to destroy
the settlements, to discourage the flow of settlers coming west, and
to prevent the area from becoming an agricultural supply base for
the Colonial army.
The invading force, equipped with some six pound cannons, on the
22. June 1780 attacked Ruddle's Fort and forced Captain Ruddle to
surrender, after Captain Bird promised that no harm would come to
them. The same fate awaited the Martin's Fort nearby. Despite Bird's
promises, the Indians were hard to control, they killed and scalped
some of the inhabitants, and destroyed all the livestock and food
supplies. Most of the settlers were taken prisoner. In all this
confusion and tragedy Mary Kratz gave birth to her first child.
It was not a good time for such an event.
Leonard and Mary were separated from each other. Mary was taken ....
to be continued .......................by Johannes Helmut Merz.
( The foregoing from " He was a Hessian" publ.1993 (out of print)
Dear Ruddlesfort historians and subscribers!
With my last posting to your list I promised to give you the story
of one of the captives of the Ruddle's Fort in 1780, the Hessian
soldier Leonhard Kratz (in Ruddle's Roll called Leonard Croft).
I wrote it back in 1989 when I followed the trail of this particular
favourite of mine, who originated in a village not far from my own
hometown Hanau in Hessen, Germany.
He came with the Hesse-Hanau Regiment Erbprinz to Quebec in 1776,
took part in General Burgoyne's ill-fated expedition to Saratoga,
N.Y. in Oct.1777, and was captured with all of them, and taken to
Boston as prisoner and a year later was marched to Virginia, where
he ended up in the Charlottesville, Albemarle County prison camp.
I wrote his story and it was first published in the Johannes Schwalm
Historical Association Journal of 1991, and later was part of my own
little book "He was a Hessian", publ. 1992, and since out of print.
What I am bringing you now is the chapter V titled =
Pioneering in Kentucky
On the 31. of May 1779 Leonhard Kratz for whatever reason decided,
that he had enough of this prisoner life and escaped from the
Albemarle barracks. On his own and alone, he made it over the Blue
Mountain ridge to the Shenandoah valley. From now on Kratz had to
depend on his own survival instinct in a wild, rough, and tough
After Leonhard's escape from the barracks and his arrival in the
Shenandoah valley, he met the Munger family, who were planning to
pack up and seek new settlement in Kentucky.
The Munger's were an old German settler family, who had lived in
the valley since long before the revolution, and with the family
growing, needed more land.
Old William Munger had bought a 250 acres farm in 1771 on the
Naked Creek, north of Staunton near the Page/Rockingham County line.
He left this farm in trust to his sons David and John, and prepared
to hitch up his wagons and move with the rest of the family to the
new territory of Kentucky. He needed all the manpower he could get,
and in Leonhard Kratz, the escaped soldier, he found a strong and
This is how Mary Burch's Family Record of 1880 described the
situation: "The years 1779 and 1780 were distinguished by the
vast number of emigrants who crowded to Kentucky for the purpose
of settling and availing themselves of the benefits of the land law
by locating land warrants. Among the numerous bands which left
Virginia for the Lone Land, was one in which there was a family
named Munger, another Toofelmeyer, and the "paroled" soldier
Leonhard Kratz, he by his acquaintance with the country acting as
a guide to the party. Indian hostility was proportionably active,
and both movers and settlers were in great danger. In the Munger
family was a daughter named Mary. It is not known whether any
acquaintance existed between the two previous to leaving Virginia
or not, be that as it may, somewhere on the journey young Leonhard
proposed to Mary, and she accepted happily his proposal.
The next step was to obtain parental sanction. This consent, upon
application, was most posetively refused, their chief objection,
was his being a soldier from a far off land, a stranger. This, of
course, was quite a serious state of affairs to the lovers, and
something desperate had to be done.
He waited till the company were pretty well advanced into the
wilderness, and under his guidance, when he suddenly brought them
to a halt by declaring he would go no further with them as a guide,
unless they consented to his marriage with their daughter. So, after
due deliberation, the came to the conclusion that "discretion was
the better part", and consented. The marriage ceremony, according
to the requirements of the times, was performed in the open air by
the side of the wagons that contained their all, as soon as a
properly authorized person was found."
This is a very romantic story indeed, and has been told time and
again to Leonhard and Mary's grand- and great grand children, I am
sure, but a few questions did come up, which needed to be
investigated and clarified. With the help of some other sources of
information I have reconstructed as it really must have happened.
Leonhard Kratz was a stranger in this country, he did not know it
at all. Therefore, he had neither the experience nor the knowledge
to serve as a guide to lead new settlers from the Shenandoah valley
to Kentucky. He also had very little experience as an Indian fighter,
except that he knew how to handle a rifle and how to shoot.
The other more important fact was, that old German settler families
like the Munger's would not have trusted their lives and all their
worldly possessions to a "soldier from a far off land", which was
their feelings toward Leonhatd. But the Munger's needed him for one
good reason alone, he was a strong man and had a strong back, and
that was his most appreciated asset.
Let me at this point introduce Captain Isaac Ruddle of the Virginia
To be continued .......................... by John Helmut Merz.
Hello, while looking at your past postings in the Ruddlesfort
rootsweb archives, I found your list of men at Ruddle's Fort
under Captain Isaac Ruddle (Lafferty, p.303).
First a question before I explain who one particular name on the
list actually was, my question:
Would this group of men represented on that list be considered
a unit of the Virginia Militia and part of General George Rogers
Clarke's army? Would they as such have to give an oath of allegiance
to the State of Virginia and/or the Congress?
Sorry, these are actually two questions.
Now to the one name on this list which may or may not have given
you some headaches - Leonard Croft
Leonard Croft in actual fact is the Hessian deserter Leonhard Kratz,
who came with the Munger family from the Shenandoah Valley, and
against the will of her parents started some techtel-mechtel (found
in normal English-German dictionaries only in the German part), and
finally allowed the two to marry (forced by circumstance). By golly,
I do have another question, this is getting obnoxious - it was said
that the two were married by the side of the wagon train halfway to
Kentucky. Who could have performed a marriage, perhaps the commander
Captain Isaac Ruddle? Or was there a priest/reverend/minister nearby?
If somebody would be so good and answer those questions for me,
I will give you Leonhard's full story.
Looking forward, cheerfully yours,
John Helmut Merz
Thanks for your recent letter to the RUDDLESFORT group. I am very
interested in the information you have gathered on the Munger,
Toffelmeyer, and Kratz families. As you may know, I have a web site
dedicated to all the captives of Ruddle's and Martin's forts and would
love to post what information you have on these families for fellow
researchers. The web site address is:
Would it be possible for you to send the chapter you wrote on Leonard
Listowner, RUDDLESFORT discussion group
Thanks for the great information on the Girtys. I'll definitely post
the information to the web site. By the way, did you know that a book
had been written about the Girtys titled "The History of the Girtys" by
Consul Willshire Butterfield? It was originally published by Robert
Clarke & Co., 1890, but has been recently reprinted by Log Cabin Shop,
Inc., Lodi, Ohio, 1995. I ordered it through Wennawood Publishers who
have a web site at
> Just to say hello to your Ruddelsfort discussion group. It was
> quite a surprise to find this mailing list in my favourite Rootsweb
> organization. Congratulations to the organizer(s).
> Just to introduce myself to your members, I am John Helmut Merz,
> also known as Johannes Helmut Merz, who has traced the Munger,
> Toffelmeyer, and Kratz families from the Shenandoah Valley to the
> Licking River and Ruddlesfort. I have seen the (at the time) very
> neglected cemetery where Ruddles was buried, and I have been at
> the Public Library at Paris, Kentucky in search of information.
> This is a subject which holds great interest for me, even though
> I have written my piece about my favourite "Hessian" Leonhard Kratz
> who was captured at the fort by Capt. Henry Bird, and his Indians
> under Simon Girty, and is a chapter in my latest book
> "The Hessians of Upper Canada".
> I am looking forward to enjoy the discussions on your list, not
> having realized how much interest this episode in the American
> Revolution in respect to Kentucky has created.
> Even if I do not participate in the discussions for the time being,
> I will follow with great interest, and above all, next thing I will
> do, is to check the rootsweb archives for all the previous postings.
> Sincerely, John Merz. http://www.cgo.wave.ca/~hessian
Dear Ruddlesforters: If this information is repetative or
annoying, please delete. It is some information that I found on the
ancestry.com website that I thought might be of interest to some of
you. I found it and it sources very interesting. There is still a day
or two left of free lookups at
if you scroll down the page, there is another search site that searches
other sources than DAR. When the authorization card comes up, just
click submit. I have found a ton of information this week, which is
probably why no one else has been able to get there. It is good stuff.
Have fun. Carol
American Biographical Library
The Biographical Cyclopædia of American Women
American Biographical Notes
The Chicago Historical Society
GIRTY, SIMON, among the most infamous of tories and most cruel of
partizan brigands in the revolution; in 1778 he was
a prisoner at Pittsburg, but escaped; in 1778 he went through the
Indian country to Detroit, inciting the Indians to murder,
and in 1782 witnessed the torture of Col. Crawford; the same year he
assisted in driving away the Moravians [p.165] from
among the Wyandots, and in 1791 was with the enemy against St. Clair.
In 1793, he acted as interpreter at a treaty, and
was very insolent and false to his duty, and the failure of the
negotiation was ascribed to him. (Sabine's Loyalists.)
1 Combined Matches
THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH
CHAPTER VI THE AMERICAN PEOPLE NOT RACIALLY IDENTICAL WITH THOSE OF NEW
Concerning the patriotism of the Scotch-Irish, the general testimony of
contemporary and later writers is to the effect that
there were no Tories among them, and that they were found uniformly
strayed against the British; but it is probable this
statement can be taken as applicable only in a general way and one to
which many individual exceptions may be noted. One
of these exceptions was that of the notorious renegade, Simon Girty and
his brothers, who were probably Scotch-Irish on
their mother's side. The Scotch (Jacobite) Highlanders of North
Carolina principally settled along the Cape Fear River,
were nearly all active Tory partisans,15 as were also the Scotch
Catholics of New York. Many Scottish names appear in
Sabine's list of Loyalists, principally from these two States; and some
also from Pennsylvania, among which may be
mentioned that of Galloway. 16
Tennessee the Volunteer State 17691923: Volume 2
HOWARD JOSEPH PULLUM.
Howard Joseph Pullum of New York city, occupying a position of
distinction in connection with the development and
control of the sugar industry on the North American continent, was born
in Lexington, Fayette county, Kentucky, March
12, 1878, and is a son of Armstead Blackwell Pullum, whose parents were
William A. and Eliza Jane (McCann) Pullum,
early residents of Fayette county. The latter was a granddaughter of
Hezekiah Ellis of Spotsylvania county, Virginia, the
historic character who was imprisoned in 1775 by Lord Dunmore for
denouncing the King of England. Her mother, Sarah
Ellis McCann, was one of the small children in the fort on August 16,
1782, when the women there braved a savage host at
the siege of Bryans Station, Kentucky, to secure water for the fort
that was defending the station against Simon Girty and
his Indian allies. Her brother Captain William Ellis, was next in
command of the block house and thus the family was closely
associated with the early history of development in the south.
History of Columbus, Franklin County, OH, Vol. 1
"This was on the 9th of February, 1791. I was alone clearing out a
fence row, about a quarter of a mile from the house, when an Indian came
to me, and took my axe from me and laid it upon his shoulder with his
rifle, and then let down the ock of his gun, which it appears, he had
cocked in approaching me. I had been on terms of intimacy with the
Indians, and did not feel alarmed at this movement. They had been about
our house almost every day. He took me by the hand and pointed the
directionhe wanted me to go; and although I did not know him, I
concluded he only wanted me to chop something for him, and went without
reluctance. We came to where he had lain all night, between two logs,
without fire. I then suspected something was wrong, and attempted to
run; but he threw me down on my face, in which position I every moment
expected to feel the stroke of the tomahawk on my head. But he had
prepared a rope, with which he tied my hands together behind me, and
thus marched me off. After going a litte distance we fell in with George
Girty, son of old George Girty. He spoke English, and told me what they
had done. He said: 'White people have killed Indians, and that the
Indians had retaliated, and now there is war, and you are a prisoner;
and we will take you to our town and make an Indian of you, and you will
not be killed if you go peaceably; but if you try to run away, we won't
be troubled with you, but we will kill you, and take your scalp to our
town.' I told him I would go peaceably, and give them no trouble. From
thence we traveled to the crossings of Big Beaver with scarce any food.
We made a raft, and crossed late in the evening, and lay in a hole in a
rock without fire or food. They would not make fire for fear we had
attracted the attention of hunters in chopping for a raft. In the
morning, the Indian who took me, delivered me to Girty, and took another
direction. Girty and I continued our course towards the Tuscarawas. We
traveled all that day through hunger and cold, camped all night, and
coninued until about three in the afternoon of the third day since I had
tasted a mouthful. I felt very indignant at Girty, and thought if ever I
got a good chance I would kill him.
A Talk With Simon Girty.
"We then made a fire, and Girtv told me that if he thought I would
not run away he would leave me by the fire, and go and kill something
to eat. I told him I would not. 'But.' said he.
'to make you safe I will tie you.' He tied my hands behind my back, and
tied me to a sapling, some distance from the
fire. Afterhe was gone, I untied myself and laid down by the fire. In
about an hour, he came running back without
any game. He asked me what I untied myself for? I told him I was cold.
He said. 'Then you
374 CENTENNIAL HISTORY OF COLUMBUS
no run away? I said 'no.' He then told me there were indians close by,
and he was afraid they would find me. We
then went to their camp, where there were Indians with whom 1 had been
as intimate as with any person, and they
had been frequently atour house. They were glad to see me, and gave me
food, the first I had eaten after crowing
Beaver. They treated me very kindly. We staid all night with them, and
next morning we all took up our march
toward the Tuscarawas, which we reached on the second das, in the
Met the Hunters and Warriors.
"Here we met the main body of hunting families, and the warriors of the
Allegheny, this being their place of
rendezvous. I supposed these Indians all to be Delawares; but at that
time I could not distinguish between the
different tribes. Here I mt with two white prisoners, Thomas Dick, and
his wife, Jane. They had been our nearest
neighbors. I was immediately led to the lower end of the encampment,
and allowed to talk freely with them for
about an hour. They informed me of the death of two of our eighbors,
Samuel Chapman and William Powers, who
were killed by the Indians--one in their house, and the other near it.
The Indians showed me their scalps. I knew
that of Chapman, having red hair on it.
"Next day about ten Indians started back to Pittsburgh. Girty told me
they went to pass themselves as friendly
Indians and to trade. Among
these was the Indian who took me. In about. two weeks they returned
wellloaded with store goods, whisky, etc.
Tries to Escape.
After the traders came back, the company divided; and those who came
with us to Tuscarawas, and the Indian who took
me, marched on towards Sandusky. When we arrived within a day's journey
of the Indian town, where Fort Seneca since
stood, we mettwo warriors going to the frontier war. The Indian I was
with had whisky. He and the two warriors got
drunk, when one of the warriors fell on me and beat me. I thought he
would kill me. The night was very dark, and I ran out
into tim woods, and lay under te side of a log. They presently missed
me, and got lights to search for me. The Indian to
whom I belonged called aloud: 'White man, white man.' I made no answer;
but in the morning, after I saw the warriors start
on their journey, I went into camp, where I was much pitied on account
of my bruises. Next day we arrived within a mile of
the Seneca town, and encamped for the night, agreeably to their manner,
to give room for their parade, or grand entrance
the next day. That took place about eight o'clock in th morning. The
ceremony commenced with a great whoop or yell. We
were then met by all sorts of Indians from the town, old and young, men
and women. We then called a balt, and they
formed two lines about twelve feet apart, in the direction of the
History of Hamilton County Ohio
CHAPTER VIII THE MIAMESE AND THE INDIANS
The attack on Dunlap's began in the early morning of January 10th.
About five hundred Indians appeared before the
stockade, with three hundred more in reserve in the neighborhood, and
demanded its surrender, promising the garrison and
settlers safety. They are believed to have been led by the notorious
white renegade, Simon Girty, who was guilty of so
many atrocities and barbarities toward the whites, arid is said to have
died, himself, in the centre of a blazing log-heap,
where he was placed by a party of avengers, who recognized him long
after Indian hostilities had ceased. Girty's brother
was also in the attacking force, with Blue Jacket and other well-known
chiefs. During the parley with Kingsley, which lasted
two hours, Simon Girty was seen holding the rope with which the
prisoner's (Hunt's) arms were tied, and sheltered behind a
log. Lieutenant Kingsley was in command, but had only eighteen
regulars, who, with eight or ten armed residents, made but
a feeble garrison in point of numbers. Nevertheless the Indian demand
was refused and fire was opened by the garrison,
being promptly returned by the besiegers. As soon as possible a runner
was got off to Fort Washington for reinforcements,
and the defence continued to be stoutly maintained. The women in the
station kept up the supply of bullets to their
defenders by melting spoons and pewter plates and running them into
balls; and the fire on both sides was scarcely
intermitted for hours. The Indians entirely surrounded the stockade on
the land side, their flanks resting on the river; and
their fire was hot and distressing. It was kept up until late in the
afternoon, when the Indians drew off and during the night
put Hunt to the torture in full view of the garrison, between the fort
and an ancient work remaining near. The attack was
renewed in the evening and maintained in a desultory way until
midnight, when the beleagured people again had
comparative rest, but no refreshment in their weariness and terror
except parched corn, their supply of water being cut off
by the merciless foe. The Indians in this attempt set fire to the brush
about the station and threw many blazing brands upon
the structures within it, but they were happily extinguished before
serious mischief was done. Again the Indians came on the
next day, but were met with the steady, unrelenting fire of the
garrison, and hastily withdrew, probably hastening their
retreat from the report of their scouts that relief was marching from
Fort Washington. In their retreat the Indians shot all the
cattle within their reach. A force of thirty regulars and thirty-three
volunteers had been dispatched from Fort Washington,
under the command of Captain Timmons, reaching the neighborhood of the
station the next forenoon about ten o'clock, but
finding the Indians already gone. They went in pursuit at once, but
with little effect, the detachment not being numerous
enough to make an effective attack. [p.63]
History of Hamilton County Ohio
CHAPTER XX CIVIL LIST OF HAMILTON COUNTY
Before sunrise on the morning of the tenth of January, just as the
women were milking the cows in the fort, the Indians made their
appearance before it, and fired a volley, wounding a soldier named
McVicker. Every man in the fort was immediately posted to the best
advantage by the commander, and the fire returned. A parley was then
held at the request of the Indians, and Abner Hunt, whom they had taken
prisoner as before mentioned, was brought forward securely bound, with
his arms pinioned behind him, by an Indian, or, as some say, the
notorious Simon Girty, the leader of the party, holding him by the rope.
Mounting him on a stump within speaking distance of the garrison, he was
compelled to demand and urge the surrender of the place, which, in the
hope of saving his own life, he did in the most pressing terms,
promising. that if it were done, life and property would be held sacred.
Not a single individual in the fort, however, would agree to a
surrender. Lieutenant Kingsbury took an elevated position where he could
overlook the pickets. and promptly rejected all their propositions,
telling them that he had dispatched a messenger to Judge Symmes, who
would soon be up to their relief, with the whole settlement on the Ohio.
He failed, however, to impose on them. They replied that it was a lie,
as they knew Judge Symmes was then in New Jersey, and informed him that
they had five hundred warriors, and would soon be joined by three
hundred more, and that, if an immediate surrender was not made, they
would all be massacred, and the station burned. Lieutenant Kingsbury
replied that he would not surrender if he were surrounded by ten
thousand devils, and immediately leaped from his position into the fort.
The Indians fired at him, and a bali struck off the white plume he wore
in his hat. The prisoner Hunt was cruelly tortured and killed within
sight of the garrison.
The whole strength of the garrison was eighteen soldiers and eight or
ten of the settlers capable of bearing arms. The entire number in the
fort, including women and children, not counting the soldiers, did not
exceed thirty souls. The Indians were estimated by those in the fort at
from thee to five hundred, led by the infamous renegade, Simon Girty, as
was ascertained seven years after, on the return of a white man, who had
been taken prisoner near the station a few days before the attack
History of the American Nation by William J. Jackman (9 Volumes)
Chapter 38 Closing Events of the War -- Formation of the Constitution
About the same time, a large body of the Indians north of the Ohio, led
by the infamous Simon Girty, a Tory refugee, invaded Kentucky. They were
met by the Kentuckians, under Colonels Boone, Todd, and Triggs, at the
Big Blue Lick, when a bloody and desperate encounter ensued. But
overwhelmed by numbers, nearly one-half the Kentuckians were either
killed or taken prisoners.
National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution Volume 13
[p.25] Mrs. Mary Jane Moody.
DAR ID Number: 12065
Born in Indiana.
Wife of Granville Moody.
Descendant of Simon Kenton, of Virginia.
Daughter of William Kenton Parkison and Mary Waters Barkley, his wife.
Granddaughter of John G. Parkison and Matilda Belle Kenton, his wife.
Gr.-granddaughter of Simon Kenton and Elizabeth Jarbo, his wife.
Simon Kenton had a remarkable career as an Indian fighter and was with
Daniel Boone in the frontier warfare. He was a scout until he joined
Gen. George Rogers Clark and was at the surprise and capture of the
British fort Kaskaskia, 1778, which was a bloodless conquest and won the
friendship of the French settlers. He was soon captured by the Indians
and through the intercession of a noted outlaw, Simon Girty, his life
was spared. He was carried to Canada, where he served as prison laborer
until 1779, when aided by the wife of a trader, he made his escape. When
Kentucky was overrun by the Indians, he gave valuable service and
commanded a company under Clarke in the successful Scioto expedition,
1782, which awed and quieted the savages. In his old age a special act
of Congress gave him a pension. He was born in Fauquier county, Va.,
1755, and died 1836, in Logan county, Ohio, near the spot where he had
escaped death by the Indians. A town and county in Kentucky are named in
I'm going to place MAJ Craycraft and Capt. Orr on the "possible
captives" list until we can clearly establish that they were not taken
captive. I'll post your findings to the captives web page today.
Thanks for your continuing efforts in clarifying and updating our list.
James Sellars wrote:
> I've done a little reading and I'm pretty sure that Maj CRAYCRAFT and
> Capt ORR, who are on the list, were not at Ruddell's or Martin's
> when it was taken in 1780. According to Allan Eckert's book "That Dark
> and Bloody River," these two men were taken in 1781.
> According to the book, Col Archibald Lochry, county lieutenant of
> Westmoreland PA, led a group of militia from Pittsburgh and down the
> Ohio to Kentucky in the fall of 1781. His force was going to reinforce
> Goerge Rigers Clark's men at the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville).
> sent an advanced party commanded by Maj Charles CRAYCRAFT to try and
> catch up with Clark, who was further down the Ohio. Maj CRAYCRAFT's
> party was captured on the Ohio River near the mouth of the Great Miami
> River. Lochry's force continued on and was captured by the same
> near the present day Loughery's Run just past the Great Miami River.
> This became known as "Lochry's Defeat." Among the captured officers in
> Lochry's militia was Capt Robert ORR, who was wounded during the
> capture. All of these men were sent to Detroit as prisoners of war.
> So, I believe that Maj Charles CRAYCRAFT and Capt Robert ORR are the
> same men who are mistakenly listed on the Ruddell's fort list. They
> probably listed because they may have been mentioned in some records
> with some Ruddell's and Martin's fort prisoners while at Detroit.
> James Sellars
> Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com
I am not a Ruddle/Riddle researcher, but I've forwarded your info from
the Bracken query page and this to the Ruddles Station research group. I'm
hoping that one of them might have your ancestors in their database!
Here is my Ruddles Station web page. Be sure to see Bob Francis'
pages also! He's got some ruddles info and links you might find
>I have very little information on the Riddle family. What I have is an old
>faimly record my mother found in old papers when she was going through
>things when my grandmother went into a nursing home. I can tell you the
>branch of Riddles is a large family who moved to Blackford County, Indiana
>in the late 1920s and Johnnie Ridddle (how he was referred to in the
>records) later moved closer to Indianapolis. He is buried in Hancock
>County, Indiana. I have just begun to research census and county records
>in Rowan County, KY.
>Here is more that I have:
>John Riddle born 1801 was called Shelby by the family; he was a farmer as
>per the census. He married Mary Adeline __? She used both names at
>different times and different sources. They had six children: Commodore
>born 1848, Sarah R born 1852, John Riddle, junior born 1854, Nathan born
>1836, L W born 1838, and Mary born 1844.
>John is a family name, but not all the uncommon.
>This John was obviously born after the Revolutionary War in 1801, but since
>he is my oldest known relative, I am open to any suggestions or information
>you may have.
Any of these look familiar to you Ruddles researchers? -Jon
>NAME: Maryanne Mills
>SURNAMES: HOPKINS, COLLINS, WEAVER, JONES, WATSON, SAUNDERS, STEWART,
ROBINSON, DARNELL, GUNNEL, ARNOLD, RANKIN, HOLLAND, BENSON, ALEXANDER,
SOUSLEY, COCHRAN, PAYNE, MURDOCH, CHAMBERS, ROWLAND, MCINTYRE, DUFFEY,
HARMON, PECK, KIRK, ECKHARDT, RIDDLE, NICKELL, LOVELESS, BLACK
>DATE: Sep 10 1998
>The Riddles are from my mother's side of the family and are found in the
area of Fleming County that later became Rowan County. Hattie P Riddle born
1908, Rowan County, KY was the daughter of Johnnie Riddle born 1888, Rowan
County and Elizabeth Loveless born 1888, Rowan County. Johnnie Riddle was
the son of Commodore Riddle born 1848, KY and Amanda Nickell born 1853, KY.
Commodore was the son of John Riddle born 1801, KY and Mary Adeline (last
name unknown) born 1813, New York.
I've done a little reading and I'm pretty sure that Maj CRAYCRAFT and
Capt ORR, who are on the list, were not at Ruddell's or Martin's Station
when it was taken in 1780. According to Allan Eckert's book "That Dark
and Bloody River," these two men were taken in 1781.
According to the book, Col Archibald Lochry, county lieutenant of
Westmoreland PA, led a group of militia from Pittsburgh and down the
Ohio to Kentucky in the fall of 1781. His force was going to reinforce
Goerge Rigers Clark's men at the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville). Lochry
sent an advanced party commanded by Maj Charles CRAYCRAFT to try and
catch up with Clark, who was further down the Ohio. Maj CRAYCRAFT's
party was captured on the Ohio River near the mouth of the Great Miami
River. Lochry's force continued on and was captured by the same Indians
near the present day Loughery's Run just past the Great Miami River.
This became known as "Lochry's Defeat." Among the captured officers in
Lochry's militia was Capt Robert ORR, who was wounded during the
capture. All of these men were sent to Detroit as prisoners of war.
So, I believe that Maj Charles CRAYCRAFT and Capt Robert ORR are the
same men who are mistakenly listed on the Ruddell's fort list. They were
probably listed because they may have been mentioned in some records
with some Ruddell's and Martin's fort prisoners while at Detroit.
Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com
This is a test to see if the new "taglines" have been added to the
Ruddlesfort e-mail messages. Taglines are automatic messages "tagged"
to the end of any message generated through our group. The "taglines"
that I have added are the web page addresses for the "Ruddles and
Martin's Forts" web page and the "Captives" web page.
I'm very pleased by the progress we have made on bringing together the
extant documents relating to the captives of Ruddle's and Martins
forts. To date, due primarily to your collective efforts, we have added
17 new names to the original compiled list of captives. Almost every
week I receive new information on these ancestors. I believe that we now
have one of the larger collections (perhaps the only collection of its
kind) of source material on Ruddle's and Martin's forts.
I encourage you to keep your eyes open to new material and please feel
free to post this information to the group. Its exciting to think that
we are forging new frontiers (forgive the pun) of knowledge in this
important area of study.
This is a multi-part message in MIME format.
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The following Ruddle's Fort account was sent to me by Beulah Franks.
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From: WRFC71A(a)prodigy.com (MRS BEULAH A FRANKS)
Date: Wed, 9 Sep 1998 15:30:21, -0500
Subject: RW PENSION of MICHAEL LEONARD-GRANT CO
Content-Type: Text/Plain; charset=US-ASCII
State of Kentucky
County of Grant.
On this 12th day of October 1835 personally appeared in open court before
the Justices of the County Court of Grant, now setting Michael Leonard, a
resident of Grant County and State of Kentucky, aged about __ years, who
being first duly sworn according to law, doth on his oath make the
following declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the Act of
Congress passed June 7, 1832. That he entered the service of the United
States under the following named officer and served as herein after stated.
That he was born some time in the Spring of the year 176_, (time not
recollected), in the county of Rowan and what is now the State of North
Carolina and there resided until the fall of 1779, that he then removed to
what was then the District of Kentucky, now the State of Kentucky, at a
place called Riddles Station, near the junction of Hinston and Stoner Creek
forming the south fork of Licking River, that some time about the first of
June 1780 there was great alarm about the Indians and British, it being
reported that a force consisting of British and Indians was expected to
appear and attack the stations, that although this declarant was not then
of an age which required of him military entry, he volunteered and was
received under the command of Captain Riddle who commanded at a Station
called Riddles Station and entered upon the duties of a private soldier and
so remained doing the duties of a private soldier under the orders of said
Captain Riddle until after the middle of said month of June 1780, say about
the 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd or 24th day of said June, the day not now
recollected, when the force before expected consisting of two or three
hundred English and six or seven hundred Indians under the command of Capt.
or Colonel Bird of the British army made its appearance and we were
prepared for resistance, but after the force of the enemy was ascertained
and their means of attack, Captain Riddle surrendered and the enemy entered
the station, plundered and destroyed everything which could not be
conveniently removed and sent in charge of a portion of Indians all the
prisoners, both men, women and children to Detroit, the prisoners were
divided into parcels of from two or three to about twelve according as they
were able to offer resistance and put under charge of as many Indians as
was thought necessary to secure them, this declarant was divided out with
seven others, say two men, two boys, two women and two children and under
the charge of eight Indians and while on our way to Detroit and some where
in what is not the State of Ohio, while at breakfast one of the Indians
became angry with this declarant and struck him on the top of his head with
a tomahawk and came near killing him, he however survived and traveled on
until we arrived at an Indian town of the Shawneys where we all were
compelled to run the gauntlet.
We then proceeded to Detroit where we were divided out among the
citizens to work and was watched so that taking into consideration the
ammence wilderness to be traversed, the Indians and many other danger
we could not leave. Some however was sent to Quebeck or some other place.
After we had been divided out among the Indians at Riddles Station as
before said, we then understood that the British and a part of the Indians
were to proceed to other stations in the neighborhood, which turned out to
be the case, for a short time after the prisoners of Riddles Station had
been brought to Detroit the British and Indians that had been left at
Riddles Station came to Detroit with all of the force of Martins Station.
This declarant remained a prisoner of war until the news of peace
reached the constituted authorities at Detroit when we all were told that
we were at liberty to go where we pleased, which happened as this declarant
now believes in the latter part of the year 1783 so that this declarant was
in actual service of the United States while in the station and a prisoner
of war from about the beginning of June 1780 until about the fall of the
year 1783 being the time he was liberated, so that he has served the United
States as a private soldier not less than three years and for such service
he claims a pension.
He was not while in the service with any other troops than those
mentioned and therefore saw nor knew of any others, this declarant received
no discharge and has no documentary testimony of his service and knows of
no person whose evidence he can now procure who is acquainted with his
service except John Zinn and Elizabeth Franks, both of Grant County. There
is several others but they live at too great a distance for this declarant
to travel and see so as to procure their evidence.
This declarant has no record of his age and only states his age from
the fact that he was told that he was 14 years old at the taking of Riddles
Station. This declarant was living in what is now Bourbon County, Kentucky
when he was called in to service and when he returned from his captivity
which was in the year 1784, he settled again in Bourbon County, Kentucky
and remained there until 1786 when he removed to Lexington, Kentucky and
remained there until the year 1797 when he removed to Scott County, and
remained there until about 1803 when he removed to what is now Nicholas
County, Kentucky when he removed to Harrison County, Kentucky and remained
there until 1808 when he again removed to Scott County, Kentucky and
remained until 1809 when he removed to what is now Grant County, Kentucky,
where he has remained ever since, say about 26 years.
This declarant never received a discharge from the service for there
was no officer to give it to him, he having remained a prisoner until the
close of the Revolutionary War and returned home without the ______ of an
officer. This declarant states that although there is in his neighborhood
clergymen, yet he could not procure any one of them to attend this court
(though had they attended they would state all that I could have had them
to state), he there refers to the certificate of Travis T. Daniel and
Charles Secrest to whom I know will state their opinion in relation to my
veracity and their belief of my service as a soldier and private of the
Revolution. This declarant declares his name is not on the pension roll of
of any State or Territory and hereby relinquishes every claim whatever to a
pension or annuity except the present sworn to and subscribed as aforesaid.
Michael (X) Leonard
We, Travis Daniel and Charles Secrest both residents in the County of
Grant and State of Kentucky hereby certify that we were well acquainted
with Michael Leonard, who has subscribed and sworn to the above
declaration, ___________ and that we concur in that opinion. Sworn and
subscribed the day and year aforesaid.
Travis F. (X) Daniel
Charles (X) Secrest
I, H. B. Smith, Clerk of the Court of Grant County, do hereby certify
that the foregoing contains the original proceedings of the said Court,
in the matter of the application of Michael Leonard for a pension. In
testimony whereof I have hereto set my hand and seal of office this 28th
day of October 1835.
H. B. Smith, Clk.
Know all men by these presents that I, John Zinn, having been informed
that Michael Leonard hath applied for a pension and having read his
declaration which was made before the County Court of Grant County on the
12th day of October 1835, I do hereby certify that I am well acquainted
with said Michael Leonard and that I believe him to be 73 years of age,
that he was as he states in his said declaration in service in the
Station called Riddles Station in the year 1780 when said Station was
taken, say about the 22nd day of June, in said year that the said Leonard
together with this affiant and all others then in said Station was taken
prisoners of war and _____ _____ as he hath stated and there detained as
such until the fall of the year 1783, that the said Leonard now resides in
Grant County and has done so for some years as has this affiant. Given
under my hand this 30th day of October 1835.
State of Kentucky
County of Grant
I, Asa Vallandingham, one of the Commonwealths Justices of the Peace in
and for said county do certify that the affidavit of John Zinn was this
day subscribed and sworn to before me and that the witness is a credible
person. Given under my hand this 30th day of October 1835.
Asa Vallandingham, Justice
State of Kentucky
County of Grant
Know all men by these presents that I, Elizabeth Franks, do hereby certify
that in the year 1780 the English and Indians took Riddles Station and
that I was among those that was taken to Detroit and that Michael Leonard
was also of the number and that he was detained at Detroit by the enemy
from the aforesaid year of 1780, say about the middle of June in said year
until the fall of the year 1783 when the news of peace reached the
authorities at Detroit and we were all then informed that we could depart
at our pleasure, the said Michael Leonard does now and has for some years
resided in this (Grant) county. Given under my hand this 29th day of
Elizabeth (X) Franks
State of Kentucky
County of Grant
I, Asa Vallandingham, one of the Commonwealths Justices of the Peace in
and for said county do certify that the above affidavit of Elizabeth
Franks was this day subscribed and sworn to before me given under my hand
this 29th day of October 1835.
Asa Vallandingham, Justice