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I am forwarding this as I feel that it is important especially for the
newbies on the list. Jeannie <><
Subject: TIP #292 - DOCUMENT, DOCUMENT, DOCUMENT - THE CENSUS
I have "hit" upon this topic before, but more and more I see new
researchers, and some more experienced ones - just taking as Gospel truth
everything they find. This might be from web sites, files, letters .... if
someone else has it this way, it must be true. Not so! I have been doing
genealogy for twenty-eight years now and still am finding my mistakes.
Genealogy is not an exact science; we will never have everything right.
But, we can do the best we can. If you pick up information, investigate it,
dissect it, chew it over and sometimes, spit it out! It's lovely to be able
to trace our family tree to famous political or historical characters, or
tie into royalty. But ... some of us just can't do it. We just come from the
average every-day pioneer stock. Just because the first name or the last
name ties in with someone in a famous family, doesn't mean it's the same
person. I'm sure there were a lot of namesakes for John Quincy Adams,
George Washington or Daniel Boone. But, is OUR Daniel Boone THE Daniel
Sometimes our ancestors were well-written; sometimes we throw a party if we
can find them anywhere. They seemed to hide out at census taking time,
didn't fight in any battles, never served on any juries, got married under
an alias - whatever! But, they are our family and we do want to find them.
Sometimes we find the "skeleton in the closet" too .... it's not our fault!
One of the first and most important sources for our family tree search of
course, is the census. Finding our family on an early census is wonderful
but we need to be aware that there are built in problems with the census
records as with any other printed source.
George Washington was the one responsible for seeing that a 10-year census
was taken in the United States. It became law in 1790 and is still
proceeding. Realizing that in 1790, our country only had about 3,231,533
people; it wasn't quite as difficult as it is today. Slaves an Indians
weren't counted - the government was more interested in the number of men
who might be able to serve in the military if we again entered into a major
war. Memories of the Revolutionary War were quite fresh in the minds of our
leaders and many of those who had fought in that war were getting up in
The English saw to it that most of the 1790 census was destroyed during the
War of 1812. The only remaining records that provide data on the people of
that census is from the tax records, and of course, only the head of
household is listed, no females shown.
It was also determined that the results of a census had to remain private
for 72 years. One can understand the reasoning behind this - people might be
more prone to snoop into private information or give false answers if they
thought the whole world knew the real facts! The latest census available for
public research is the 1920 census. Legally, the censuses cannot be copied
or microfilmed until the end of the 72 years and this takes time too.
Why there are errors on the census you might ask? Well, the main blame falls
on the census takers and the people who answered the questions, and the
transcriptions of the data ..... the list is endless. The census taker was a
man ... just an ordinary man who was selected for the task. Like in today's
world, some took the job more seriously than others. If the man could write
(no matter how well), he was picked. He might be of French, Scotch, Irish or
German background - hearing the names differently (as a Kentucky transplant
I understand that!). His handwriting might be scribbled. They got tired,
missed houses, got false information. Not all were uneducated of course -
they could be farmers needing extra money on a year when the crops weren't
doing well, teachers .... so we can't classify them all as uneducated.
Thankfully, most of them lived in the area of enumeration however. Most were
diligent and the results are as perfect as they could provide. They earned
money - and it was hard-earned! No speedy cars - but by horseback, house
If we attempt to follow the trail of the census taker on his loyal steed,
we might become quite disorganized. There were no specific laws on how this
was to be done - they just said giddy-up go and took off for the nearest
farm or house. Thus - even though the house numbers shown follow in
sequential order, it did not necessarily mean that the two houses were next
to each other. He could zigzag all over the place, cutting through the
woods, coming back to houses where he had found no one at home earlier. He
could cut home for dinner and then take out in a different direction, but
the house numbers remained in order. Mary and Martha, having a neighborly
back yard talk might show up many pages apart
Most of the time, the people answering the census taker's questions were
adult. But ... the weary census taker, hot from a long day's work, might
have to resort to asking children or great-grandma the questions. Can you
imagine him asking a 7 year old boy where his parents were born, how old
they were, how many children in the family? Or great-grandma who sometimes
couldn't even remember her own name!
If you do a comparison over several censuses, you might find the state of
birth bouncing from state to state and ages all over the place. Until you
have the actual date of birth, you have to do an averaging game; ages could
vary up to 10 years from census to census. Some women got younger on every
census, children's names varied from Charles to Charley to C. W. to Boy ....
So, in your first step of documentation using the census, beware! Compare
the census records carefully. A child not shown? Were they born in the right
time frame to be listed? Had they died right after the census was taken?
Were they the child of the head of household or a relative living with them?
Chart them out - then start trying to fill in the missing gaps or correcting
the wrong information from other sources.
(c) Copyright 18 May 2000, Sandra K. Gorin, All Rights reserved.
Col. Sandi Gorin, 205 Clements,Glasgow, KY 42141
(270) 651-9114 - E-fax (707)222-1210 - e-mail: sgorin(a)glasgow-ky.com
Member: Glasgow-Barren Co Chamber of Commerce
Barren Co: http://www.rootsweb.com/~kybarren/
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Good morning and Happy Mothers Day to all of you Mom's out there.
I am leaving here in a few and won't be home to send out the proper
greeting, and besides you guys on the list would not appreciate a loverly
Mothers Day Card, so just doing it this way...
Have a great weekend..... Jeannie <><
Good morning every one... Well something is kaput on some of the lists
OR.... We just aren't paying attention to what we are doing ( and that
includes me too) and the mail is coming to me instead of the lists...
SO..... if we would all just sorta remember to check when we reply that it
is going where we want it instead of to me I would appreciate it.... When I
get back on Monday and have more time, I will go in and check to see that
everything is checked off correctly.....
Thanks LOADS..... Jeannie <><
Hi Maureen, My relatives all originated from Nicholas, Robertson and Mason
Counties but I grew up in Harrison Co. (Cynthiana) which joins Nicholas and
Robertson. There are tons of Varners over there.
The library in Cynthiana has one of the finest family research centers I've
ever seen. Maybe they can give you a hand. This isn't much info but maybe
it will help a bit.
> -----Original Message-----
> From: MAUREEN HYDE [SMTP:email@example.com]
> Sent: Thursday, May 11, 2000 3:15 PM
> To: KYNICHOL-L(a)rootsweb.com
> Subject: [KYNICHOL] Re: KYNICHOL-D Digest V00 #94
> Okay, Donna
> That's all fine and good. I take it we share a few ancestors! :-? Some
> of mine WERE from Nicholas Co. I am interested in anyone researching
> either the Varner or Ficklin families in Nicholas or surrounding
> counties. I can't find a place for my Sarah Ficklin in any of the
> Ficklin families in that area. Jacob Varner was b. ca. 1771 in Penn.
> and was in Nicholas Co. If Jacob's age is any indication of Sarah's
> age, she was born within 5 to 10 years of his age. Jacob at least went
> to Posey Co. Ind. along with dau. Elizabeth Varner who was b. ca. 1797
> and who m. Joseph Nation Endicott. I have no problem with the Endicotts
> but I would like to get a handle on my Ficklins. I'm in Canada so I
> can't do first hand research in the court house but maybe someone can
> direct me to a good source either at the Family History Centres or?
> I'll save the pyramid for "show and tell". Mind boggling isn't it?
> Maureen Hyde
That's all fine and good. I take it we share a few ancestors! :-? Some
of mine WERE from Nicholas Co. I am interested in anyone researching
either the Varner or Ficklin families in Nicholas or surrounding
counties. I can't find a place for my Sarah Ficklin in any of the
Ficklin families in that area. Jacob Varner was b. ca. 1771 in Penn.
and was in Nicholas Co. If Jacob's age is any indication of Sarah's
age, she was born within 5 to 10 years of his age. Jacob at least went
to Posey Co. Ind. along with dau. Elizabeth Varner who was b. ca. 1797
and who m. Joseph Nation Endicott. I have no problem with the Endicotts
but I would like to get a handle on my Ficklins. I'm in Canada so I
can't do first hand research in the court house but maybe someone can
direct me to a good source either at the Family History Centres or?
I'll save the pyramid for "show and tell". Mind boggling isn't it?
It can buy a House
But not a Home
It can buy a Bed
But not Sleep
It can buy a Clock
But not Time
It can buy you a Book
But not Knowledge
It can buy you a Position
But not Respect
It can buy you Medicine
But not Health
It can buy you Blood
But not Life
So you see money isn't everything.
I tell you all this because I am your Friend, and as your Friend I want to
take away your pain and suffering...
so send me all your money and I will suffer for you.
A truer Friend than me you will never find.
CASH ONLY PLEASE.
Check this out.
click on and enter your birthday.. this will tell you newspaper headlines on
the day you were born, sports headlines for the year, popular songs of the
year, the price of a house, milk etc.
Could You Have Passed the 8th Grade in 1895?
Probably Not...Take a Look:
This is the eighth-grade final exam from 1895 from Salina, Kansas. It was
taken from the original document on file at the Smoky Valley Genealogical
Society and Library in Salina, Kansas and reprinted by the Salina Journal.
8th Grade Final Exam: Salina, Kansas - 1895
Grammar (Time, one hour)
1. Give nine rules for the use of Capital Letters.
2. Name the Parts of Speech and define those that have no
3. Define Verse, Stanza and Paragraph.
4. What are the Principal Parts of a verb? Give Principal
Parts of do, lie, lay and run.
5. Define Case, Illustrate each Case.
6. What is Punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of
7-10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you
understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.
Arithmetic (Time, 1.25 hours)
1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.
2. A wagon box is 2 ft. deep, 10 feet long, and 3 ft. wide.
How many bushels of wheat will it hold?
3. If a load of wheat weighs 3942 lbs., what is it worth at 50 cts. per bu,
deducting 1050 lbs. for tare?
4. District No. 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy
to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for
5. Find cost of 6720 lbs. coal at $6.00 per ton.
6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at
7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft. long at
$.20 per inch?
8. Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.
9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance
around which is 640 rods?
10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.
U.S. History (Time, 45 minutes)
1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided.
2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus.
3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.
4. Show the territorial growth of the United States.
5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas.
6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.
7. Who were the following: Morse, Whitney, Fulton, Bell, Lincoln, Penn, and
8. Name events connected with the following dates: 1607, 1620,1800,1849, and
Orthography (Time, one hour)
1. What is meant by the following: Alphabet, phonetic orthography,
2. What are elementary sounds? How classified?
3. What are the following, and give examples of each:
Trigraph, subvocals, diphthong, cognate letters, linguals?
4. Give four substitutes for caret 'u'.
5. Give two rules for spelling words with final 'e'. Name two exceptions
under each rule.
6. Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each.
7. Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word: Bi, dis,
mis, pre, semi, post, non, inter, mono, super.
8. Mark diacritically and divide into syllables thefollowing, and name the
sign that indicates the sound: Card, ball, mercy, sir, odd, cell, rise,
blood, fare, last.
9. Use the following correctly in sentences, Cite, site, sight, fane, fain,
feign, vane, vain, vein, raze, raise, rays.
10. Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation by
use of diacritical marks and by syllabication.
Geography (Time, one hour)
1. What is climate? Upon what does climate depend?
2. How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas?
3. Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean?
4. Describe the mountains of N.A.
5. Name and describe the following: Monrovia, Odessa, Denver, Manitoba,
Hecla, Yukon, St. Helena, Juan Fermandez, Aspinwall and Orinoco.
6. Name and locate the principal trade centers of the U.S.
7. Name all the republics of Europe and give capital of each.
8. Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same latitude?
9. Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the
sources of rivers.
10. Describe the movements of the earth. Give inclination of the earth.
Imagine a college student who went to public school trying to pass this
test, even if the few outdated questions were modernized. Imagine their
professors even being able to pass the 8th Grade. Can Americans, student and
professor alike, get back up to the 8th Grade level of 1895?
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