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Over the years I have asked questions and been asked questions by those who
those who progress past names and who begin to wonder about words they see
'benefice' 'in fee' 'rectory' vicarage'. I always thought that Civil
Parishes were there before religious parishes. We're always told that the
Churhc of Ireland Parishes pretty much follow the boundaries of the Civil
parishes and yet, as we read through lewis Topogaphical Directory of Ireland
we find that this is not necessarily so.
This is being posted to the Donegaleire list because it specifically
mentions the Diocese of Raphoe.
This will be continued.............
RECTORY VICARAGE AND PARISH IN THE WESTERN IRISH DIOCESES
K. W. Nicholis
Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries,
"In most areas of western Europe the parochial system (whose essential
feature was that a particular church was entitled to the tithes and the
profits arising from spiritual minstration within a given area, the parish)
was in general a creation of the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries. In
England the system was already fully established by the time of King Edgar
(959-63). In the Celtic countries, Wales, Ireland and Scotland, the
introduction of the system was of much later date, and followed on the
Hildebrandine reformation and in the wake of Norman conquest and
penetration. For Ireland, outside the towns of the Ostmen, there is no
evidence whatsoever that the formation of parishes had even commenced before
the arrival of the Normans. The Norman invaders of Ireland consequently
found a land yet undivided into parishes, with the result that for some time
after the conquest we find the lay lords exercising 'the right of conferring
tithes at will on anyone in orders or [on] any religious corporation [which]
preceded the more rigid rule that tithes should be paid to the local parish
priest'. This is in contrast to the situation in contemporary England, where
grants of portions of the ecclesiastical revenues of a parish 'were always
of pensions charged on the parish church, never of pieces of land'. In
Ireland, however, even after the establishment of the parochial system and
down to the end of the mediaeval period we find in the Munster dioceses the
peculiar ecclesiastical benefices called 'particles' (particulae), composed
of the tithes of particular lands within a parish and which for purposes
other than the payment of tithe continued to form part of that parish.The
formation of parishes in the eastern and southern parts of Ireland which
were occupied soon after the Norman invasion seems to date from the period
of their settlement, the last quarter of the twelfth and the opening years
of the thirteenth century, and the parishes in these regions, usually small
and often very small, corresponded in general, as was the case in some
regions of South Wales, with the holdings of the military tenants of the
area. Professor J. Otway-Ruthven, in a paper published in 1965, has traced
the development of the parochial system in the rural deanery of Skreen in
Meath, one of the most thoroughly settled and Anglicised areas of mediaeval
Ireland, and a similar pattern of parishes, reflecting in their boundaries
those of the secular manors or fees, is characteristic of most of southern
Leinster and of Munster. As a contrast to such parishes, Professor
Otway-Ruthyen cites the case of such an enormous parish as Ardnurcher, in
Cos. Westmeath and Offaly, which extended over a heavily wooded and boggy
region in which Norman penetration had been very slight.
In the regions mentioned, as in England, there was no regular system for the
partition of the parochial tithes. Originally, of course, the rector or
parson had been the parish priest and had received the entire tithe;
however, with the coming of the custom of impropriation, by which the
parochial revenues were vested in a religious house, and with the increase
of the practice of granting rectories as benefices for the support of clerks
who were actively engaged elsewhere, in study or in official work, it became
necessary to provide vicars who would perform the actual duties of the cure.
By the end of the twelfth century the vicarage was becoming a benefice in
its own right, in which the holder had a right of freehold, rather than a
mere perpetual curacy, and was acquiring its own endowment, consisting of a
portion of the tithes of the parish. There was no specific rule, however,
for this vicarial remuneration; the vicar might receive a half, a third, or
only a quarter of the total tithes, or he might receive the 'small tithes'
of the parish, while the rector received the 'great tithes' (those of corn,
hay and wood) or again the vicar might receive the tithes of some particular
lands within the parish. In other cases the rectory remained 'entire', the
rector continuing to exercise the cure and receiving the entire tithe of the
parish, and no vicar existed.
In the purely Irish dioceses of Ulster, however- Clogher, Derry and Raphoe -
we find, in contrast to the haphazard arrangements already described, a
system of quite extraordinary regularity. In these dioceses, as throughout
the ecclesiastical province of Tuam and in the dioceses of Sodor (Isles) and
Argyle in Scotland, the archaic custom of the tripartition or
quadripartition of tithes, otherwise unknown in the British Isles although
common elsewhere in Europe, and under which the bishop received a third or a
quarter (respectively) of all tithes within the diocese, was in force, and
in every parish there existed both a sinecure rector and a vicar, who
received fixed shares of tithe under the system of tripartition or
quadripartition. The system is best described in the words of Bishop George
Montgomery, writing about 1609 :
". . . The Byshop of Clogher hath besyde his lands the fourth part of all
tythes throughout his Dyoces, which is called quarter episcopalis. The
Byshops of Derry and Rapho have the third part, and it is called tertia
"The rest of the tythes are devyded betwene the Parson and Vicar. In
Clougher the Parson hath two fourth parts, the Vicar hath one. In Derry and
Rapho the Parson and Vicar have each of them one third part."
"The parsonages were usually bestowed upon students that intended to take
orders, towards their mayntenance at schoole, and were enioyned within few
yeares after they accepted the parsonage to enter into orders, but hold not
themselves bound to execute devyne service.
"The Vicars are tyed to perpetuall residence and service of the cure, and
besyde their portion of tythes, have the benefit of all oblations and other
small ducties at buryals and christenings to themselves alone for attendance
of the service ...."
"The parsonages and vicarages through all theise three Dyoceses have byn
ever collated by the Byshops of theise Sees, without contradiction or
challenge of any person"
Bishop Montgomery's statement as to all livings being in the collation of
the bishops seems not to have been true for an earlier period, as in the
fifteenth century several lay advowsons, probably relies of the Norman
settlement, occur in the diocese of Derry, and a single doubtful example
occurs at that period in the diocese of Clogher. Impropriations were very
rare in the three dioceses mentioned. The coexistence in each parish of a
sinecure person or rector and a serving vicar was the almost universal
practice in the Gaelic parts of Ireland. In the three dioceses mentioned
only a single parish of Derry formed an exception to this rule; the '1306'
Taxation of Raphoe Diocese shows it already fully established there, and by
the beginning of the fifteenth century it was here and elsewhere referred to
as the immemorial custom.The rule of tripartition or quadripartion of
tithes may possibly have led to the conclusion that the shares other than
the bishop's should each go to different persons, but it is perhaps
significant that in a number of places the parson or rector was the direct
successor of the ancient comharba and in fact bore that title."
If you take a regular world map of Ireland and look for Dawros Head on the
Donegal coastline then that is a part of the Civil Parish of Inniskeel. The
civil parish is part of the area known as Glenties, which is also a Poor
Law Union area.
Inniskeel seems to be a big parish, relative to many others.
In 1836, there was a Catholic Parish by the name of Glenties in co. Donegal
in the Diocese of Raphoe. This is a possible catholic parish for those
whose ancestors came from the Civil parish of Inniskeel. Our civil parishe
boundaries do not necessarily co-incide with Catholic parish boundaries
while in many instances the Church of Ireland ones do.
----- Original Message -----
> ------------Forwarded Message Follows------------
> -------- Original Message --------
> Subject: Re: [DONEGAL~] 1793-mid 1800's - people: 1
> Date: Mon, 11 Dec 2000 11:14:05 -0800
> From: Jack <jackshoe(a)inland.net>
> To: n3dm(a)erols.com
> Where is the Parish of Inniskeel in Donegal Co. Ireland
The following is an Extract from an article on Children's Burial Grounds in
county Mayo: JRSAI, 1969. While it deals with county Mayo, the reason for
the existence of special burial grounds for children was the same throughout
Ireland and the types of site found in Mayo are the same as used in other
An introduction to a survey of these, and other forgotten burial grounds, in
R. B. Aldridge
"Particular attention does not seem to have been given to the recording and
mapping of what are known as "Children's Burial Grounds," primarily used for
the burying of unbaptised children. In some areas many are shown on the 6
inch Ordnance Survey maps, whilst in others only a few are marked. Knox
mentions most of the well known ones, as does O'Donovan, and these are
mostly on the maps. Without local help and interest many can be passed over
unnoticed, and in time will be forgotten or destroyed. Some have been lost
already in land reclamation work.
Probably in most cases unbaptised or stillborn children were not permitted
to be buried in consecrated ground, so that special plots outside the normal
burial grounds were very necessary. In more recent years these sites have
continued to be used as C.B.G's; certainly in many cases burials have taken
place within the last twenty years, and even up to as late as 1964 in one
Obviously in penal times, famines, and before the building of many R.C.
Chapels and graveyards during the past 170 years, the distances from
isolated villages and farms to a consecrated burial ground were often too
great or too difficult for normal use. In many cases I have used the term
C.B.G., when it is most probable that the site was also used for adult
burials in the past.
In some cases there were sites of ancient churches or graveyards, or of
ruined abbeys etc., that could be used; in others a convenient rath, or
portion of one, was set aside for burials, or a small piece of ground
outside a village fenced in; these latter sites not being consecrated ground
were used probably for the burial of unbaptised children only. A rath being
considered as pagan in origin, was an obvious choice for the burial of the
unbaptised. There are no suitable raths in much of the bogland of the west,
and though adults might have been taken long distances to consecrated
ground, small local enclosures were made for unbaptised children to be
buried in. These were often used for the burials of adults also. All the
above can be considered as "Communal burial" as opposed to "Private burial
places." O'Sullivan deals with the customs connected with children's burials
in many parts of the country, and gives a list of some sites, viz gardens,
fields, hedges, bushes, a cliff ledge (Donegal), high water mark, outside a
church wall, or to the north side of the graveyard.
TYPES OF SITE
(a) a prehistoric tomb
(b) a very slightly elevated flat rectangular or circular piece of
(c) a small plot inside the vallum of a rath.
(d) a small plot outside a rath.
(e) a small piece cut off from the inside perimeter of a rath.
(f) a mound 5 or 6 feet high.
(g) marked by a cairn of stones.
(h) in an old graveyard with remains of a building, used only as a
(i) inside the foundations of an old church or abbey building.
(j) with the reputed site of a vanished church nearby.
extensively used burial places, probably village burial grounds before the
building of any nearby chapels, and now C.B.G.'s only. "
one reference mentioned:O'Sullivan on the burial of Children. J.R.S.A.I.
Extracted from: Some people invovled in whaling in Ireland are named.
Whaling from Ireland.
Arthur E.J. Went
Published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland
Vol. 98, part. 1, 1968
C. B. Moffat in his interesting paper, published in 1938, gives details of
the species of whales and cetacea generally which have been recorded from
the coasts of Ireland. Most of these records of whales from Irish waters
have come from strandings, that is to say, whales which have come inshore,
either dead or dying and not actually hunted at sea.
Stranded whales were, of course, very important in medieval times. In July,
1295, for example, there is on record the pleadings in a case in County
Kerry in which Robert de Clohulle was charged with having appropriated a
whale to his own use "in prejudice of the Crown". In reply Robert refuted
the charge stating that by ancient custom in Ireland "such great whales are
reported wreck of the sea", a right which his father had before him. Later
the same year in September, 1295, William Macronan is reported as having
made a fine for "a certain great whale" of two cows and 10 shillings,
showing the importance of a stranded whale. Many years later in 1631 the
charter of the city of Waterford gave to the mayor, etc. inter alia, "the
fishery of salmon and other fish of every kind, although hitherto called
royal (whales and sturgeons excepted)". In other words whales and sturgeons
were reserved to the Crown because of their importance. In 1623 one of the
advantages of Ireland was said to be the "royalties" of whale and sturgeon
In medieval times ships were not really capable of being used for whaling
but stranded whales were important because they provided oil for lighting
and many other purposes, at a time when oils and fats could only be obtained
from a limited number of animal sources. A single whale would also provide,
inter alia, a large amount of oil at one and the same time. It is,
therefore, not surprising that when whales came inshore, particularly in
arms of the sea, fishermen did everything possible to slaughter the
creatures or recover the oil (blubber) from those stranded and dead. We know
also that the proprietors of many estates had the rights of whales washed
ashore and cherished these rights greatly. Tuckeys tells us that a whale of
40 feet in length which swam two miles up the Bandon River above Kinsale was
pursued by "the fishermen who struck it several times with harpoons but to
no effect, as it succeeded in getting out of the harbour." Even as late as
November, 1965, a school of pilot whales, which came with the rising tide
into the narrow part of Brandon Bay in County Kerry, was eventually cut up
and sold to a firm interested, inter alia, in mink farming.
In the year 1736 a Lieutenant Samuel Chaplain or Chaplin quartered at
Gibraltar, who had been formerly employed in the Greenland whale fishery,
was informed by a Captain Nesbit, a colleague, that whales abounded in the
spring of each year off the north-west coast of Ireland, particularly in the
Counties Sligo and Donegal. Chaplain resigned his commission and went to
Ireland with a view to fishing for whales. He petitioned the Irish House of
Commons in November, 1737 for aid to carry on whale fishing. In his petition
Chaplain stated he had established a settlement on St. John's Point on
Donegal Bay and he had struck several whales but only "got the benefit of
one". He had cured the bone and had obtained a quantity of oil. In support
of his petition Chaplain suggested that the whale fishery would be "of great
advantage to the nation by establishing a commodity of bone and oil for
exportation as well as the consumption of this nation and instructing a
great number of able sailors, who may be employed in other seasons to fish
for pilchards, cod, ling and herrings in the same vessels". The matter was
referred to a Committee which recommended on 14 December, 1737 that Chaplain
deserved encouragement and that it would be beneficial to give premiums on
oil and fins of whales taken on the Irish coasts in order to encourage the
Chaplain petitioned Parliament again on 6 November, 1739 for assistance. On
10 November, 1739 Mr. Henry Hamilton reported for the Committee appointed to
consider Chaplain's petition in favour of the petitioner and recommended a
grant of £500. The actual report of the Committee is interesting in that the
actual evidence of some of the persons involved in the fishery was given. A
man named Edmund MacGaghman, who had been employed as a boatman, stated he
had seen Chaplain strike several whales but only one fish was taken in last
season, a creature of about 42 feet in length which produced 14 tons of
blubber and a large quantity of bone. Evidence was given that Chaplain had
employed four boats, each with six men per boat. Samuel Bryan stated he had
bought whale bone from Chaplain for which he had paid £20. The bone was well
cured and cut and "better than what he had bought from Holland". Bryan paid
£1.2.0 per dozen per bone, selling it for £1.10.0. The House of Commons
approved of the Committee's resolution on 13 November, 1739.
Apparently Chaplain was not particularly successful, only catching two
whales in a matter of eight years; and seems to have died before he could
obtain his grant of £500. It is said that Chaplain's brother continued the
whale fishery later, also with little success.
The next important attempt at whale fishing was made by Thomas Nesbit of
Kilmacrenan, Co. Donegal in association with his brother, Andrew, Paul and
James Benson and Acheson Irwin. Arthur Young in his well known book on his
tour in Ireland mentions that Nesbit went to London and purchased a vessel
of 140 tons and engaged a number of persons as harpooners. The experience of
these people is set out in their petition to the Irish House of Commons on 9
November, 1763. This is worth quoting verbatim as follows .
"That the petitioners having found from long observation that a certain
season of the year the sea upon the north west coast of this kingdom abounds
with valuable whales, in the year 1759 formed themselves into a company for
carrying on a whale fishery upon the said coast under the inspection and
management of the petitioner Thomas Nesbitt. That the petitioner Thomas in
order to carry their scheme into execution went to London and there
purchased a ship and had her fitted up for the purpose and have five boats
made of a new construction. That in the spring in the year 1760 harpooners
and other experienced persons in fishing for whales, cutting up were put on
board said ship with lines, guns, harpoons, lances, casks and every other
article fit for carrying on said fishery and said ship so fitted out soon
after arriving upon the said coast. That the petitioner Thomas having
provided a sufficient number of boatmen gave directions to proceed upon the
said fishery and great numbers of whales having appeared and frequent
opportunities of striking them occurred but either through the ignorance or
affected design of the those employed, every such opportunity was lost and
the petitioners in that year were unsuccessful save in one attempt only,
made by the petitioner Thomas whereby he killed one whale. That no apparatus
for rendering or reducing to oil the blubber or manufacturing the bones of
whales being in the kingdom the petitioner Thomas sent the said ship with
the blubber and bone of said whale to London where he apprehended that some
alteration and addition were necessary to be made in and to this said ship."
The petition then went on to give details of the 1761 season which, however,
proved to be unsuccessful, not a single whale being taken. The total expense
of the venture up to the end of 1761 was £3,000. In 1762 the company killed
three whales, "two of which were large and one a small one, being young."
Two whales were killed in 1763 but the promoters were greatly discouraged
because of the great expense incurred. One of the difficulties the petition
to the Commons stressed was the lack of proper facilities to render the
blubber in Ireland at that time. A Committee was appointed to examine the
proposal on 9 November, 1763 and on 15 November this committee reported that
the petitioners had fully proved their case and in view of the value of the
whale fishery to the country recommended a grant of the sum of £2,000 to
assist in erecting warehouses, etc. to enable the petitioners "to extend and
carry on the said fishery with effect"
The report was adopted by the House by 70 votes to 57 and sent to the
Committee of Supply which resolved subsequently to make a grant of £1,500.
Nesbit apparently devised a gun harpoon which was said to be very
effective. It is clear, however, that Nesbit's attempt to establish a whale
fishery was un- successful, despite the grant of £1,000 which was ultimately
given to him. Nesbit was nearly killed during his whaling activities, as
recounted by both McParland and Wakefield. Apparently it was this accident
which resulted in abandonment of the whale fishery.
A bill was eventually introduced in February, 1778 to give encouragement to
the whale fishery as carried on from Ireland and was given royal assent on 5
July, 1778 but this was ineffective. The object of this legislation was to
provide a subsidy for the operation of a whale fishery from Irish ports and
the landing and processing of the blubber, bone, etc. ashore in Ireland. The
merchants operating under the name of the Greenland Fishing Company of
Londonderry petitioned the Parliament on 19 February 1787 for similar
assistance to that given to the fishery based further south. From the end of
the 18th century until the early years of this century no active whaling was
pursued around Ireland,
I am looking for MCBETH's (Thomas born about 1810) He married Jane WARK (b-1806) Children are James b 1836, John Strong b 1838, Isabella Alice, b 1844. They emmigrated to Canada in 1851 any information at all would be greatly appreciated
Thank you very much,
It looks like I invited you to come and visit my family website and then
wouldn't let you in. I got quite a few emails letting me know about it.
Please accept my apologies.
I have now fixed it and would like to re-invite you to come and visit.
I have updated my family website. I have been able to add new surnames and
more exact dates.
Please stop by and visit. sign the guest book and say hello and/or contact me
if you find a name that goes to your tree. I am happy to share information
and answer any questions you may have as far as who belongs to whom.
The MacMorough O'Cavenagh family as Kings and Princes of Leinster founded
many religious houses and establishments throughout their territory. Among
the numerous Kings or Princes of the race, none were more renowned for
wisdom, bravery, statesmanship or nobleness of character than Art the
Second. He fooled and humiliated the vainglorious Richard of England, who
landed with an army of 30,000 men and 4,000 archers led by a numerous brood
of knights and favourite courtiers, whom the wily prince of Leinster
attacked and harassed so incessantly when they attempted to pass through the
bogs and defiles of Wicklow and Carlow, that Richard was obliged to seek
terms from the MacMorrough in order to pass northwards to Dublin. Few of
this great host that accompanied King Richard ever saw their native England
again. A French historian who accompanied King Richard in his expedition
gives an interesting description of Art Mac Morrough as he appeared mounted
on his milk white steed to meet Earl Mowbrey, Grand Marshall of England.
Art proudly refused to treat with an inferior. The Earl Marshall returned
with this answer to the Haughty King who flew into a rage and threatened
MacMorrough with a terrible chastisement. Richard's vain boasting had
little effect on the Prince of Leinster. After finding his efforts
unsuccessful in making his way northward towards Dublin, he was obliged to
make terms with MacMorrough to allow him and his army to pass through to
Some of the MacMorrough O'Cavenagh Clan like many of their countrymen passed
over to France. Some of whose descendants attained high honors in the
armies of that country. At the time of the Revolution of 1848 one of the
race was Governor of Paris whose coolness and tact saved France from being
overwhelmed by the Red Republicans. The French pronounce the name as
Cavaignic. This Cavaignic, Governor of Paris in 1848, had a brother who was
Governor of one of the French Colonies at the same time.
Many of the race of O'Cavenagh have attained to high rank in the various
associations of life. Some of them have filled high positions in the Church
and their piety and learning have added luster to the Land of Saints. The
name is quite numerous in Leinster especially around Dublin.
Dedicated to the Memory of Michael O'Cavenagh by his devoted Grandson
James Cavenagh as we said died 1841 on 6th of January. He had been in
Strabane and came home by Ballymagorry, stopped a short time in the house of
Edward Devine, then accompanied by a man called Paddy Mullin started home by
way of Greenlaw, passed the houses in Greenlaw, went as far as the first
turn, when James requested him to return home. James went on his way
towards the Locks - Mullin looked around after him and believed he was going
along all right. James Cavenagh did not reach home. His brother Michael
looked up the Greenlaw Road several times expecting him, but he did not
come. There were loads of gravel emptied up on the road and there were snow
showers from the northwest. It was believed he tripped on the gravel, he
fell into the drain, which was lower than the road. He walked in the drain
for some distance until he came to where the brow on the side of the field
was low enough for him to get out of the drain. He then walked in the field
to where there was a ?eash . He passed across the ?eash to the road and was
found the next morning by men going down to shoot on the river sitting on
the ?eash or rather on the road with his hat laid down by his side.
James Cavenagh was a man of fine physique, stood 6 ft or 6-ft 1-inch tall,
fine limbs and shoulders, very athletic, a great horseman. There was one
time, when with the Marquis of Abercorn at Barronscourt, it happened that a
large party of English noblemen were visiting the Hamiltons at Barons court.
They had a great hunt or steeplechase, in which an English Lord made a great
leap with his horse, he felt very proud of the great feat and made great
boasting of his achievement. This nettled the Earl, and James was called on
to defend the honor and dignity of the House. He then selected a favorite
horse and when mounted, he made a leap with his horse which far surpassed
that of the English Lord. The Earl then told James that he would grant any
request he would ask. James requested the Earl to give him the Locks for
his mother and family. This the Earl complied with most readily. Hence the
Cavenagh family removed to the Locks in November 1816.
James Cavenagh was a very correct man. Every one working for him had to
perform their duties very carefully. Above all else they were required to
keep their horses well groomed. Thomas Cavenagh, who lived at Cloughcor,
sold his farm there and his land at Ballymagorry, where he lived managing
and superintending around the mills for his brother Michael and purchasing
grain in Strabane Market. In 1852, he went to America, but lived only a
short time there. He had two daughters there who preceded him. One of them
was married to a man named McGovern. I do not know whether they were both
married or not. Elizabeth and Catherine were their names. He had two
other daughters, Mary and Sophie, who remained in Ireland. Mary married a
man named Grainger. Sophie was married to a man William McSwine or Sweeny.
He became mate and afterwards Captain of a ship trading to Scotland and
England in the coal trade. Mary had two children a boy and a girl. Sophia
had one son. Thomas Cavenagh had a boy who died when he was sixteen years
old. Thomas Cavenagh's wife was Mary Moore a sister of Captain John Moore -
a noted man in his day. A descendant of Catherine Cavenagh, the eldest
sister of Michael, was a priest at Emmet near Detroit, State of Michigan.
He was called John Lynch. He died in the 1890's. Sally Cavenagh the
youngest sister was married to a man named Michael Carlin. They had four
sons and three daughters. The two eldest sons James and Michael went to
sea. Michael died in America. John went to America. Tom remained in
Ireland. He had two daughters, Isabella and Katherine. Both married about
Strabane to men named Mulhern and Gallagher. Both have families.
Michael Cavenagh's Grandfather was named Michael also. He was married to a
woman called Sarah Dougherty from Innishowen, Co, Donegal. She was
according to all accounts a woman of sound sense and possessed of a good
education, a quality seldom found among the woman of that period. They had
four sons; James, Andrew, Michael and Patrick. James was seized by the
pressgang in Belfast in 1782. Andrew was a miller and millwright and lived
at Leightown, Donnaghmore. He had three daughters; Martha, Sarah and Betty.
Martha was married to Charles Kelly. Patrick lived in Donagheady and had
two sons and two daughters. James and John both taught school. James
emigrated to America in 1812, died about 56 or 57 and left a legacy. John
had one daughter and four sons. The sons went to America. The daughter
Ellen married a man named McCafferty. James, John, and Thomas died in
America. Patrick returned and died in Ireland.
James Cavenagh son of Mary Moore, when a boy of 18 or 19, accompanied his
Father to Belfast to sell linen cloth, as weaving was greatly in vogue at
that time. Whilst in the Linen Market, a war ship came into port, and
according to a common practice of that period, the Commandant of the ship
sent a Press gang through the town and seized on fifty young boys and took
them aboard his ship to train them for the Navy. The Father was in great
trouble about his son and appealed and entreated the officer to allow the
boy to return home with him, but all in vain. When young Cavenagh was
measured on the Standard he measured 6 feet and 1 and inch, and only 19
years of age. The officer appeared to take a conceit in Cavenagh and told
the Father to not lament, that he would make a man of the boy. He was not
long in the Navy when he was made midshipman. Cavenagh got great honor and
would have been raised to high position had he not been killed in the battle
of San Domingo in the West Indies. I think it was in 1798. An officer by
the name of Captain Culbertson, who belonged to the Sion district situated ?
miles from Strabane, made it his business to come and see the Cavenagh
family in order to tell them about their son James and how he met his death.
It appears that in the heat of the engagement he received a shot, which
wounded him seriously. He was carried down to the cockpit. The doctors
were unable to stop the bleeding and he bled to death to the great sorrow of
his companions aboard the war ship. He received great praise from the
commandant for his bravery and gallant conduct during the action.
The descendants of Michael Cavenagh of the Locks now consist of Thomas
Devine and his family, who resides at Laraghaleas, Campsie, Co. Derry,
Bernard Devine and family and sons family, who reside at the Locks and
Dysart, Strabane, Co. Tyrone. There are two other families in America, one
of which is the family of Edward Devine grandson of Michael Cavenagh, whose
Mother was Catherine Cavenagh married to Thomas Devine. They reside in
Anaconda, Montana, U.S.A. There is a family residing in Bordentown, New
Jersey, U.S.A. belonging to another grandson Edward Devine by his daughter
Mary, who married Edward Devine.
The Cavenaghs and their descendants were all sturdy and of good appearance,
kind and charitable in disposition. Their coming into the North was at the
time of the Siege of Derry. A great number of them accompanied James the
Second on his march to Derry. We find a Charles Cavenagh, who had raised
and armed his tenants and followers in Carlow and Wicklow present at the
Siege. Among them were two brothers one of whom was the ancestor of the
Cavenagh families that we have been writing about. Their names, I believe,
were James and Michael Mac Morough O'Cavenagh. One of the brothers was
killed in an engagment at Ballougry Hill on the approach to Derry. The
remaining brother said he never would go home without his brother. No doubt
he had strong good reasons for not returning to his native Carlow, as the
properties of all those who took up arms for the cause of the Stewards was
confiscated and their lives proscribed. It appears that young Cavenagh
became acquainted with a lady named Moore, who lived around Carrigans or St.
Johnstown, whom he married. It seems that after a time the family crossed
the Foyle and lived in County Tyrone around Leck and Dysart, and afterwards
in Donagheady. It is said that one of them had a property at a place called
Arcambe near Donemana in company with a man named Woods, and on account of
the Penal Laws, which were in existence at the time, a Catholic could not
take out a lease in their own name. Woods took advantage of this and
knocked Cavenagh out of the property. Under the Penal Laws Catholics had no
The O'Cavenaghs or McMorough O'Cavenaghs as they were called are descended
from Heremon through Cahir More, a King of Ireland who lived two hundred
years before the Christian Era. The ancient name in the Irish language is
Murcheda, hence MacMorough-O'Cavenagh comes from the name of a place called
Cavan where a portion of the clan resided. Their patrimony was in a place
called Idwne (spelling difficult to read) along the river Barrow on the
border of Carlow and Wicklow. There was and is a town called Borris,
sometimes the Cavenaghs or MacMorroughs are designated as belonging to the
noble House of Borris. Though one of the family has been the cause of great
misfortune to our country, yet his family in Ireland has sent forth greater
patriots or renowned Chieftains, who for centuries have battled against the
enemies of their country. Foremost among them are Donald and several Arts
or Authurs O'Cavenaghs and many others of the name and race. Many priests
of the O'Cavenagh race have been distinguished for their piety and learning.
There was Father O'Kavenagh in the Wexford Rebellion of 1798, who, along
with Fathers Roche and Murphy, after witnessing the horrible and relentless
cruelties of the British Soldiers and Yeomen in hanging the Irish and
burning their homes and who, after themselves preaching peace and obedience
to the laws, thinking to mollify and appease the cruel and tyrannical
government of England, all to no purpose, became so exasperated that they
placed themselves at the head of their people and led them against the
enemies of their country, believing that it was better to die gloriously
fighting for their country than be burned out like vermin or hanged like
to be continued.......
I would like to ask everyone who has my name in their address book to remove
it - PLEASE.
Even if you have only clicked reply all - it could be there........
PLEASE.........I'm begging you - honest.
If I get Snow White and the Seven Dwarves or whoever they are from Hahahah
or whoever it is again, I'll crack up!!!!!!!!!!!!!
PLEASE, PLEASE PLEASE............make sure my name isn't in your address
book - whatever e mail programme you are using. I'm being hit at least five
times a day...........
If I get hit by making a reply to you then that's just my tough
Please and thanks - what we're working on is too important.........
------------Forwarded Message Follows------------
-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Re: [DONEGAL~] 1793-mid 1800's - people: 1
Date: Mon, 11 Dec 2000 11:14:05 -0800
From: Jack <jackshoe(a)inland.net>
Where is the Parish of Inniskeel in Donegal Co. Ireland
Extracted from 'Ireland Long Ago' by K. Danaher, Mercier Press 1962
While the area is Co. Limerick, it shows the Hedge School and the
interaction between Landlord and people, and not all Landlords were bad and
we had Hedge Schools and people such as this in every county in Ireland. It
also shows that while you may never find a reference to your ancestors in
any parish register or official document, they may be referred to somewhere,
in some book and some day you or others may read that book and tell the
The Hedge School
About ten years ago an old schoolmaster down in County Limerick told me this
story from his childhood: - "I remember one evening - it would be in 1884,
in the month of November - when I ran home from school to my grandmother's
house. It was cold and misty and I was hungry, with nothing in my head but
the thought of a big plate of pandy and butter and a wedge of the Hallow E'
en applecake. Coming in through the yard I heard the excited voices talking
Irish inside, and when I came to the kitchen door I saw my grandmother and
old Aunty Norry sitting at the fire with an old, old priest whose head was
as white as snow. They never noticed me; they were lost in the memories of
long ago, and I soon forgot my hunger listening to them. In time I got my
supper, but I sat up until late, intent on the conversation. It was then I
heard this incident from a vanished world."
"A night school used to be held in the house of my grandmother's father, Tom
Culhane of Riddlestown. The teachers were a poor scholar, who used to live
with them, and the local curate, Father Darby Egan. They studied Latin and
Greek as well as Mathematics, English and other subjects; the priest it was
who taught the Latin. One night he finished a book of Virgil with them and
was telling them the story of the next book they would begin the following
night. Then the class broke up and the boys went off home. One of them, a
lad named Connors, lived a couple of miles away, and before he got home he
was arrested by a patrol of soldiers and dragged off to the jail in Limerick
as a suspected Whiteboy. There was little justice in those days, and the
best he could hope for was to be pressed into the British Navy, to save his
neck from the rope, for the war against Napoleon was on then, and many an
accused man was given that choice, so as to fill the ranks. Word came back
to Culhane's, and the woman of the house, my great-grandmother - her name
was Mary Mulcahy, Torn Culhane's wife - put on her cloak and went straight
up to the Landlord's house, where she was a good friend of the housekeeper,
and so got speech with the landlord, Mr Blennerhasset. He was an important
man, a magistrate and a member of the Grand jury, and sure enough, he took
Tom Culhane into Limerick with him next day and procured young Connors'
release. The same night the school was in session again when Tom Culhane
returned in triumph bringing young Connors with him, and when all the
handshaking and congratulations were over the woman of the house demanded
that young Connors should tell all his adventures. He swept off his hat and
bowed low to her, saying 'Infandum Regina jubes renovare dolorem!' Everyone
laughed at that, because it was the first line of the new book of Virgil,
what the hero said when the Queen asked him to tell of his adventures. And
the old priest who came to visit my grandmother was the same young Connors,
returned after many years in the American mission."
The old schoolmaster who told this tale is, like all the others concerned,
now dead. God rest them all. But the little picture of the past remains
bright and clear. The old thatched farmhouse with the bright fire in the
kitchen. The priest and the poor scholar vieing with each other in learning.
The little circle of attentive young men. The farmer's children listening
and picking up a bit of the classics here and there - they had had their
lessons in the three R's from the poor scholar earlier in the day. The flow
of erudition, Latin, Greek, Rhetoric, Philosophy and Mathematics. The farmer
and his good wife looking on in admiration and the servant boys and girls
amazed at so much wisdom. And there was nothing unusual in all this, for
similar gatherings could be found in many farmhouses up and down the
When I was young(er) we used to dress up on St. Stephen's day and go round
the pubs singing songs to collect money for the wran. You'd go through the
town and we'd all meet different groups doing the rounds, and people would
give to each group. I think then the money was pretty much kept for
I always thought it went on everywhere around Ireland and it's only in
recent years I've found that no, only in some counties at that time and in
fewer now. #
These days, in Dublin we have one big meeting down in Sandymount on St.
Stephen's day. It's an organised charity event, we have music - singing,
dancing on the streets, people dressed up. It goes on for a few hours and
the people who organise it also collect donations.
As far as I know similar charity events are organised in other parts of the
The Wren Boys
(extracted from JCAHS, 1894, Vol. III, p. 22)
"St. Stephen's his day" is a red-letter event in the canaille calendar of
Cork and neighbourhood. When the "wran-boys," as they are locally
termed, have captured a wren, the luckless bird is borne through the streets
in a sort of triumphal progress, secured in a bush of holly or other
evergreen, which is usually garnished with streamers of coloured ribbons,
or variegated papers, according to the resources of tile exhibitors. In
early morning the city resounds with the din of the wren-boys (which term,
by the way, embraces matured manhood), who are making a house to house
visitation, singing at each halt a chant, something as follows:-
"Mr. Blank is a worthy man,
And to his house we've brought the wran;
The wran, the wran that you may see
Is guarded by the holly-tree.
Sing holly, sing ivy, sing ivy, sing holly,
To keep a bad Christmas it is but a folly;
For Christmas comes but once a year,
And when it comes it brings good cheer.
The wran, the wran, the king of all birds,
St. Stephen's his Day was cot in the furze;
And though he is little, his family's great,
So arise, good lady, and give us a trate.
Sing holly, sing ivy, etc.
Yet if you do fill it of the small,
It will not do for our boys at all;
But if you fill it of the best,
We hope in heaven your soul may rest.
Sing holly, sing ivy, etc.
This lyric, with its refrain, is long drawn out, and as its aim is the
acquisition of largesse, the ballad does not fail to make eulogistic
reference to the good cheer provided by the worthy master and mistress of
the house, and their high reputation for hospitality during the festive
season. Richard Dowden, mayor of Cork in I845, issued a proclamation during
his mayoralty forbidding, on the score of cruelty, "the hunting of the
little bird on St. Stephen's day by all the idle fellows of the country," a
precedent which has never been followed by any of his successors in the
civic chair. The origin of this brutal custom is not known. Professor
Ridgeway, writing to the Academy, suggested the theory that the death of the
wren symbolizes the death of winter; other correspondents of the same
journal traced analogy between the Cork wren-boys and the Rhodian
swallow-boys and the crow-boys of ancient Greece who went around with
similar begging-songs. Goldsmith, while dealing elaborately with the
superstitions connected with other birds, does not notice the custom in his
brief article on the wren; but the English General Vallancey, who spent a
considerable time in Cork and the neighbourhood, and became an enthusiastic
student of the Irish language and archaeology, asserts that the Druids
regarded the wren as a sacred bird, which caused the early Christian
missionaries to place it under ban, and issue an edict for its
extermination. Windele, the Cork antiquary, however, assures us that
Vallancey "dreamt things as visionary, and disported ill fancies as wild and
incongruous, as any of the Irish Keatinges or O'Hallorans who had preceded
him." Another origin of the wren-slaughter is advanced in Hall's "Ireland,"
which contains a sketch of the St. Stephen's Day ceremony by the
distinguished Cork painter, Maclise. " As to the origin of the whimsical but
absurd and cruel custom," writes Mr. Hall, "we have no data. A legend,
however, is still current among the peasantry which may serve in some degree
to elucidate it. In a grand assembly of all the birds of the air, it was
determined that the sovereignty of the feathered tribe should be conferred
upon the one who would fly highest. The favourite in the betting-book was,
of course, the eagle, who at once, and in full confidence of victory,
commenced his flight towards the sun; when he had vastly distanced all
competitors, he proclaimed ill a mighty voice his monarchy over all things
that had wings. Suddenly, however, the wren, who had secreted himself under
the feathers Of the eagle's crest, popped from his hiding-place, flew a few
inches upwards and chirped out as loudly as he could, "Birds, look up, and
behold your king." In other parts of Ireland it seems the wren and robin
find special favour. Mr.Watters of the Dublin University Zoological Society,
asserts in his "Birds of Ireland" that the most heartless youngster who
indulges in "practical ornithology" with the eggs and young of other birds,
regards the redbreast as too sacred to be molested. "Wild and untutored," he
writes "ask him his reasons for allowing it to remain in safety, and in
many parts of Ireland you are simply answered
"The robin and the wren
Are God's two holy men"
apparently a local variant of the Lancashire folk-rhyme:
"Cock Robin and Jenny Wren
Are God Almighty's Cock and Hen"
In view of the fine Corsican spirit in which the wren is annually done to
death in the South of Ireland vendetta, it is needless to say that the
rustic rhyme quoted by the Dublin ornithologist has no place in the
bird-lore of these parts. Nor does the pretty fiction of the robins forming
a coverlet of leaves for the dead Babes in the Wood, so generally potent for
their protection elsewhere, invest them with any peculiar sanctity in the
eyes of the average Cork person.
This is taken from an old post of mine on Christmas here in Ireland.
Date: Wed, 17 Dec 1997 05:42:12 -0000
From: "Jane O'Brien" mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org
At Christmas we eat mince pies, made from pastry and a fruit mixture called
mince meat -seems this tradition came from the times when meat used to go
off quickly and meat was put into pies with various spices and kept better
- or maybe the rankness was simply not so noticeable! Today's mincemeat is
made from currants, raisins, sultanas (golden raisins to you), sugar, lemon
rind, cherries, apples and other dried fruits, plus a good dollop of
whiskey! To keep it.
Then, we have plum puddings, basically same mix as mincemeat, except here
there are breadcrumbs, flour and eggs and the mix is put in pudding bowls
and boiled for about 6 hours, Oh, how could I forget - the Irish recipe has
guiness in it! Delicious on Stephens day - too heavy for Christmas after
all the rest of the food. Served here with whipped cream or brandy butter.
Also, there is the trifle, made from sponge or boudoir biscuits as the base,
soaked in sherry, fruit salad mix on top, followed by jelly (jello to you)
which mixes inwith the fruit, topped by custard and then topped again by
whipped cream. Trifle would generally be eaten on Christmas day as it is
much lighter than the pudding.
Meat: We either go for the turkey or goose (used to be the tradiotional
dish way back when your parents and grandparents emigrated) but then the
turkey took over, so, goose goes with potato stuffing, turkey with a
regular bread stuffing.
In Cork they eat a lot of spiced beef over Christmas - or used to before
BSE hit!! Thought the Irish are back eating beef. We haven't had as much
BSE as Britain.
Vegetables: Carrots and parsnips mashed together, brussels sprouts,
marrowfat peas, celery. Potatoes roast and or boiled/mashed. Depending on
There is also the ham, boiled or baked. Usually boiled the night before
and then baked for a while on Christmas Day with a brown sugar and clove
That's the food.
We give, give and give at Christmas....Charities are out in their thousands
and every where you go there is a box looking for donations. They make a
bomb at Christamas time.......meaning a lot of money. We are recognised as
being a very generous nation. It's the truth so I might as well say it.
Then on Stephens day there;'s the wren or wran. Only caried out in a few
places nowadays, in every town when I was small and that wasn't too long
If you want to know about the wran let me know and I'l get back with that!
Methinks this is a long enough mail. Also one other thing...the pies,
pudding, trifle, turkey are alll British traditions which we've taken
I looking for information on John McCullough b in the parish of
Inniskeel in Donegal Co. Ireland in the year of 1743 he was married to
Jane Underwood between 1770-1771 the had the following children Hugh b
in 1772 married to Isaeal Cunninghan Jan.9,1805 died in Ohio Nov.7,1852
David McCullough b1775 married to Frances Long 1803 in Jefferson Co.
Ohio David Died in Fernwood Ohio of the Great floods of 1818 of Dec.
John McCullough b 1777 married to Jane Richel Feb.19,1805 died in
Jefferson Co. Ohio June of June 18,1850 Alexander McCullough b 1779 in
Inniskeel Parish Donegal co. Ireland and was married to Jane leslif 1806
died June 8,1850 Andrew McCullough b in Ireland March 17,1783 married
to margaret Norris unknown date died June 18,1846 Margaret McCullough b
1787 married Thomes richey Jan,10,1805 died 1877 Richard McCullough b
1790 Elizabeth Cellars Nov.5,1819 died March 24,1845 If any one as
information on the McCullough in Ireland history in Northern Ireland in
the 1700's in the parish of Inniskeel of Donegal Co. Ireland or can
contact me with a genealogist in that area I would very mush appreciate
it. Jack A Shoemaker Sun City Ca.
People tend to pen their ancestors in, they have a townland name, a parish
name, a county name and no matter what is said to them they will focus on
that once name. It wasn't until I began to look at maps for other countries
that I understood this. If I take a map of America and look at that, the
states, they all have nice straight boundaries. Then, within states, the
roads are straight, organised, hardly a space which looks unoccupied to my
Irish mind. If I look at a map of Ireland and our counties, they're all over
the place, no such thing as a straight line, they blend together, meander
into one another. Not only can one county look like there are bits of it in
another county, but part of a county can lie between two counties. There is
no fixed definite shape or pattern to Irish counties.
As if this wasn't bad enough, counties are further subdivided, we have
Baronies, Religious Dioceses which spread over a few counties, Catholic and
Protestant Boundaries for somewhere of the same name not being in the same
place, the Religious Dioceses are subdivided into Religious Parishes, we
have civil parishes, we have towns and townlands. We also have names for
houses or farms. There are Poor Law Unions, legal divisions. The numbers
of religious parishes may have changed over the years, increasing or
decreasing depending on how many parishioners there were in an area,
depending on whether or not there were religious in the area to serve that
One thing I have noticed over the years, is that people don't realise the
size of the area they are dealing with. Take for example a map of Ireland,
compare it to a map of the States. As an Irish person, regardless of the
key telling me what distance is equal to a mile, I still tend to relate the
two maps in one way or another. I once told someone that a place was only a
little bit away from where they were, relatively speaking. It turned out
that the friend laughed at the good of it, told me he would buy me a map and
that the two places were 600 miles apart. I think Irish, the searchers from
outside Ireland will generally tend to think in a manner which will suit
their country. I think small, they generally think big. There will be a
few who manage to get over that mental hurdle, and who will comprehend the
size differences, but not many.
The first thing searchers have to do is think 'small', think Irish, and
always remember that here in this country for any small town or village
there will be a core number of people who are descended from those who left.
Twenty or thirty years ago, when someone moved in to any town or village,
they were 'blow-in's'. They still are today, but not as noticeable this isn
't, because we move around more often, work brings us from place to place.
Today, fewer will leave their home town permanently, they will travel home
at the weekends, they will commute to wherever they work. The towns and
villages are not dying as they did in the past, their populations are not
necessarily shrinking like they did in the past, and so it is harder to find
that original 'core' group of families. To go back through the genealogical
information on any core group of families in any town or village it will be
found that each of these families is related to the other in some way,
In some ways,contradicting what I have just said, that the searchers should
not pen their ancestors in, believe that these people did not move around,
and that there are core families in any area, there is the fact that yes,
they did move from place to place, or some of them did and great distances.
You need to become familiar with our geography. For any county that you
have a townland name for, you need to check out the various division names
associated with that place. This you can do by visiting one of the townland
sites available on the net. These really show you nothing, tell you little
other than to give you more place names to be concerned with.
(www.seanruad.com) However, then you can also visit various sites available
which 'sell' Ordnance Survey maps for Ireland. Each county is broken up
into a number of divisions. Each county has a number of OS maps associated
with it. These do not necessarily cover only the one county, there may be
information or bits of three or four counties on a map. The maps themselves
are not indexed so it is necessary for you to go through them square by
square looking for the townland/placename in which you have an interest.
While the maps are not indexed, there are indices available at some of the
sites and using these you can find out which map you actually need. These
maps are relatively cheap. People ask about copies of original OS maps
which can be bought from the Irish OS office, containing great detail and
dating from the mid 1800's, showing the layout of the land, houses on it
etc. These are expensive, but nice to have and look at. However, I don't
recommend that you go out and buy any of these until you have positively
identified the area in which you are interested using the cheaper, smaller
OS maps. Then, do so. The placenames on the current OS maps have not
changed that much from the names used on the earlier maps.
One of the problems encountered with townland names is that any county may
have had three or four townlands of the same name. This makes it hard to
decide exactly where you should be interested in for definite. With the aid
of these maps, you can judge the size of townlands, the closest local market
town, the locations of churches and graveyards in the area. You still have
to find and work your way through any records which would be available for
that area, but you can make the journey smaller by concentrating initially
on the biggest townland. Some of our townlands are no more than the size of
If you have a place name and there is only one of that name occurring in a
county, then you treat this as the centre point on a dart board. The Bulls
Eye so to speak. Remember our geography, the way counties sit together, mix
in with one another. You work your way round that area, making the circle
bigger and bigger as your search goes on, as time passes, taking into
account any places in those rings which are found in other counties.
Remember this, they were not penned in, just because someone said they came
from this place or that place, doesn't mean that the closest church for
their religion was actually found in that parish. You could live in one
parish and the closest church could be in another parish, another county,
but sit in the field next door. How many of us would walk miles and miles
to our Parish church if we had another church 5 minute's walk down the road?
Think small, simple, easy, shortest route.
'On the last day of 1739, Ireland awoke to find itself in the grip of what
was in effect a mini Ice Age.
Rivers froze, mills seized up and houses could not be heated above frezingh
point. It was as if nature had gone a little crazy. Many were enchanted by
the novelty of it all.Carnivals, dances andsheep-roastings were held on the
But the euphoria proved fleeting. In its wake came an almost biblical
ordeal by drought, flood, fire, famine and plague, that has few parallels in
the recorded history of this island.'
The above from the cover of a book 'Arctic Ireland' written by David Dickson
a senior lecturer of Modern history in Trinity College, Dublin.
ISBN1 870132 85 8
Published by The White Row press Ltd.,
135 Cumberland Rd., Dundonald,
First published 1997
Hi Anne Marie! Hannah's place of birth may well be Tullyconnell in the
parish of Clondavadogg..........there was a Michael Friel there in the 1857
Griffiths Valuation. Also in Tullyconnell, at the same time, was William
BOYCE, which is a heck of a coincidence! There were only 11 tenants there in
In my index of the Griffiths Valuation there are 129 Boyce households for
Donegal - 4 of them in Clondavadogg (I'm still working on the index, but its
pretty much complete - only taken a year so far!!)
Hope that helps!
VENI, VIDI, VELCRO.....I came, I saw, I stuck around
----- Original Message -----
Sent: Tuesday, December 05, 2000 11:29 AM
Subject: [Donegal~] Friel in Donegal
> Dear Listers,
> This morning I found that my Hannah Friel was born December 25, 1856 in
> Cornell in Donegal, Ireland. She married James Boyce in Lawrence County
> in 1876. She died May 13, 1881 in Ironton, OH.
> I am wondering if possibly they knew each other in Ireland. Are there any
> Boyce families in Donegal?
> What do I do now?
> Anne Marie
> ==== IRL-CO-DONEGAL Mailing List ====
> #1) Maybe some of your people came from Scotland ?
> Subscribe to the SCOTLAND-GENWEB mailing list: