Rob Vaughan <robvaughan1005(a)googlemail.com>
This is all the data I found on the Llanedi Tithe, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
The main info is <snip>
- How much land (column - a p r = Acres, Perches and Reams?)
I think you'll find 'r' is an abbreviation of 'rod' which is an
obsolete unit used in
the measurement of land. At various times in English history the rod (equivalent to 5.5
yards) was also known as a pole or perch.
I quote from Jo Edkins's fascinating website at:
Medieval ploughing was done with oxen, up to 4 pairs at a time. The ploughman handled
the plough. His boy controlled the oxen using a stick, which had to be long enough to
reach all the oxen. This was the rod, pole or perch. It was an obvious implement to
measure the fields, such as 4 poles to the chain. A BBC webpage about allotments says
that "an allotment plot is 10 poles" and claims that "A pole is measured as
from the back of the plough to the nose of the ox". I suppose that if you wanted to
control the front ox, you needed a pole long enough to reach! The perch was used in the
reign of Henry II (1154-1189), the pole since the 16C, and the rod since 1450. In the
16th century the lawful rod was decreed to be the combined length of the left feet of 16
men as they left church on a Sunday morning. An earlier name for a rod was a gyrd. In
North Devon there is a tradition that fencing, that is to say the cutting and laying of
a hedge, would be done at so much a land yard, which seemed to be about 5 paces or 5.5
yards, which would equate to a rod, pole or perch.
Rods, poles, perches and roods were all rather confused. They could all be a measure of
length (5.5 yards). Rods, poles and perches could also be a measure of area (5.5 yards
square, or 30.25 square yards). So a 10-perch allotment would be 5.5 yards wide by 55
yards long. A rood could be a measure of area (1,210 square yards). The dictionary also
cheerfully states that this could vary round the country!
The ream is a unit of measurement of sheets of paper.
1 ream = 20 (metric) quires = 500 sheets
John Ball, Ystalyfera, near Swansea, Wales, UK
John's Homepage: http://www.jlb2005.plus.com/
Images of Wales: http://www.jlb2005.plus.com/walespic/
Welsh Family History Archive: http://www.jlb2005.plus.com/wales/
GENUKI Breconshire Maintainer: http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/BRE/
Joint Administrator for BRE, MGY, POWYS, & RAD mailing lists